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Table 2 Results of the included studies

From: Association of circulating omega 3, 6 and 9 fatty acids with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

 

First author

sampling time (weeks)

w3 FAs

w6 FAs

w9/ w7 FAs

analytical technique

1

White SL

15–18

Decreased: LA

Increased: MUFA

NMR

  

23–30

Increased: DHA

 

2

Chen XH

16

Not Significant: ALA, EPA, DHA

Not Significant: LA, AA, DGLA

Not Significant: palmitoleic, oleic

GC-MS

3

Chen XH

15

Increased: EPA

Increased: palmitoleic

GC-MS

  

20–28

Increased: ALA, EPA, DHA

Increased: LA, AA

Increased: palmitoleic, oleic, Total MUFAs

 

4

Li XP

13

Increased: EPA, n-3/n-6 ratio

Not Significant: ALA, DPA, DHA

Increased: GLA, DGLA

Decreased: LA, EDA, AA/EPA ratio

Not Significant: AA

Increased: hypogeic acid, oleic acid, Total MUFAs

GC-MS

5

Enquobahrie DA

16

Increased: LA

Increased: Oleic acid

GC-MS

6

Lehmann R

24–27

Decreased: AA

FIA-MS/MS

7

Burlina S

third trimester

Not Significant: ALA, EPA, DPA, DHA

Not Significant: LA, DGLA, AA

GC-MS

8

Wijendran V

third trimester

Increased: DHA

Decreased: ALA, DPA, EPA

Increased: ratio of AA to DGLA

Decreased: EDA, DGLA

Not Significant: LA, AA

Decreased: oleic acid

GC-MS

9

Zhu YY

10–14

Decreased: DHA, Total n-3 PUFAs

Not Significant: ALA, EPA, DPA

Increased: GLA, DGLA,

Not Significant: LA, EDA, AA, DTA, n6-DPA

GC-MS

  

15–26

Decreased: EPA, DPA, Total n-3 PUFAs

Not Significant: ALA, DHA

Increased: DGLA

Decreased: EDA, DTA

Not Significant: LA, GLA, AA, n6-DPA

 

10

Min YJ

delivery

Increased: DHA

Decreased: ALA

Not Significant: LA, AA

Not Significant: Oleic, total MUFA

LC- GC

11

Kumatani S

12–23

Increased: LA

Increased: palmitoleic acid

GC-MS

  

24–34

Decreased: LA

Decreased: palmitoleic acid

 

12

Johansen NJ

third trimester

Decreased: oleic acid

GC-MS

13

De La Garza Puentes A

at delivery

Increased: EPA, DHA, n3 PUFAs, LC-n3 PUFAs

Increased: AA, LC-n6 PUFAs

14

Muñoz-Nava, M. A.

not reported

Decreased: LA

Increased: Oleic acid

LC-MS

15

Poole A

not reported

Decreased: ALA

Not Significant: DHA

Decreased: LA

Not Significant: AA

  1. Abbreviations: ALA α-Linolenic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid, DPA Docosapentaenoic acid, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, LA Linoleic acid, GLA Gamma-linolenic acid, EDA Eicosadienoic acid, DGLA Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, AA Arachidonic acid, BMI Body mass index, FFA Free fatty acid, GC-MS Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance, LC-MS Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, FIA-MS Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid, LC-n3 PUFAs Long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, LC-n6 PUFAs Long-chain omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid