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Table 2 Results of the included studies

From: Association of circulating omega 3, 6 and 9 fatty acids with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

  First author sampling time (weeks) w3 FAs w6 FAs w9/ w7 FAs analytical technique
1 White SL 15–18 Decreased: LA Increased: MUFA NMR
   23–30 Increased: DHA  
2 Chen XH 16 Not Significant: ALA, EPA, DHA Not Significant: LA, AA, DGLA Not Significant: palmitoleic, oleic GC-MS
3 Chen XH 15 Increased: EPA Increased: palmitoleic GC-MS
   20–28 Increased: ALA, EPA, DHA Increased: LA, AA Increased: palmitoleic, oleic, Total MUFAs  
4 Li XP 13 Increased: EPA, n-3/n-6 ratio
Not Significant: ALA, DPA, DHA
Increased: GLA, DGLA
Decreased: LA, EDA, AA/EPA ratio
Not Significant: AA
Increased: hypogeic acid, oleic acid, Total MUFAs GC-MS
5 Enquobahrie DA 16 Increased: LA Increased: Oleic acid GC-MS
6 Lehmann R 24–27 Decreased: AA FIA-MS/MS
7 Burlina S third trimester Not Significant: ALA, EPA, DPA, DHA Not Significant: LA, DGLA, AA GC-MS
8 Wijendran V third trimester Increased: DHA
Decreased: ALA, DPA, EPA
Increased: ratio of AA to DGLA
Decreased: EDA, DGLA
Not Significant: LA, AA
Decreased: oleic acid GC-MS
9 Zhu YY 10–14 Decreased: DHA, Total n-3 PUFAs
Not Significant: ALA, EPA, DPA
Increased: GLA, DGLA,
Not Significant: LA, EDA, AA, DTA, n6-DPA
   15–26 Decreased: EPA, DPA, Total n-3 PUFAs
Not Significant: ALA, DHA
Increased: DGLA
Decreased: EDA, DTA
Not Significant: LA, GLA, AA, n6-DPA
10 Min YJ delivery Increased: DHA
Decreased: ALA
Not Significant: LA, AA Not Significant: Oleic, total MUFA LC- GC
11 Kumatani S 12–23 Increased: LA Increased: palmitoleic acid GC-MS
   24–34 Decreased: LA Decreased: palmitoleic acid  
12 Johansen NJ third trimester Decreased: oleic acid GC-MS
13 De La Garza Puentes A at delivery Increased: EPA, DHA, n3 PUFAs, LC-n3 PUFAs Increased: AA, LC-n6 PUFAs
14 Muñoz-Nava, M. A. not reported Decreased: LA Increased: Oleic acid LC-MS
15 Poole A not reported Decreased: ALA
Not Significant: DHA
Decreased: LA
Not Significant: AA
  1. Abbreviations: ALA α-Linolenic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid, DPA Docosapentaenoic acid, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, LA Linoleic acid, GLA Gamma-linolenic acid, EDA Eicosadienoic acid, DGLA Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, AA Arachidonic acid, BMI Body mass index, FFA Free fatty acid, GC-MS Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance, LC-MS Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, FIA-MS Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid, LC-n3 PUFAs Long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, LC-n6 PUFAs Long-chain omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid