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Table 2 The risk of type 2 diabetes across tertile categories of dietary L-arginine, dietary protein and L-arginine to protein ratio

From: Habitual intake of dietary L-arginine in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study

  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
  T1 T2 T3 P for trend*
L-arginine
Crude Ref. 0.83 (0.55–1.26) 1.06 (0.71–1.56) 0.430
Model 1 Ref. 1.00 (0.65–1.54) 0.95 (0.62–1.45) 0.816
Model 2 Ref. 1.44 (0.84–2.46) 2.72 (1.21–6.08) 0.019
Model 3 Ref. 1.44 (0.84–2.47) 2.71 (1.20–6.09) 0.020
Total protein
Crude Ref. 0.90 (0.60–1.35) 0.94 (0.63–1.40) 0.494
Model 1 Ref. 1.33 (0.83–2.12) 1.46 (0.94–2.27) 0.099
Model 2 Ref. 1.42 (0.84–2.39) 1.89 (0.99–3.60) 0.052
L-arginine to protein ratio
Crude Ref. 1.07 (0.70–1.64) 1.45 (0.97–2.16) 0.145
Model 1 Ref. 1.02 (0.64–1.61) 1.28 (0.84–1.95) 0.242
Model 2 Ref. 0.93 (0.58–1.50) 1.22 (0.78–1.90) 0.371
  1. Hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval; Cox regression models were used
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for sex, age, smoking, diabetes risk score and physical activity
  3. Model 2: additional adjustment for total energy intakes, dietary carbohydrate, fiber, fat and lysine
  4. Model 3: additional adjustment for total protein intake
  5. P for trend test was performed by considering each ordinal score variable as a continuous variable in the model