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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the participants stratified by albuminuria and reduced eGFR

From: Clinical features of and risk factors for normoalbuminuric diabetic kidney disease in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cross-sectional study

Variables non-DKD ADKD AGDKD NADKD P-value
Number, n (%) 1120 (69.1) 360 (22.2) 95 (5.9) 45 (2.8)
Age (years) 55.5 ± 11.6 57.9 ± 13.2a 66.2 ± 12.1ab 67.6 ± 12.2ab < 0.001
Female 369 (32.9) 127 (35.3) 40 (42.1) 22 (48.9) ab < 0.05
Duration of diabetes (years) 6 (1, 10) 8 (3, 13) a 13 (10, 20) ab 8 (2, 15) c < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.4 (22.5, 26.5) 24.8 (22.4, 27.3) 24.2 (22.3, 25.7) 25.4 (23.2, 26.8) 0.100
WC (cm) 90.7 ± 9.1 92.1 ± 10.3 91.4 ± 9.6 92.6 ± 7.6 0.079
Smoking, n (%) 381 (34.0) 129 (35.8) 28 (29.5) 9 (20.0) 0.150
Hypertension 481 (42.9) 257 (71.4) a 84 (88.4) ab 34 (75.6) a < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 135 ± 18 145 ± 21a 152 ± 22ab 137 ± 20bc < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 83 ± 11 86 ± 12 a 85 ± 12 79 ± 12abc < 0.001
PP (mmHg) 50 (41, 60) 56 (45, 68) a 67 (50, 79) ab 57 (42, 73) ac < 0.001
Duration of hypertension (years) 0 (0, 4) 1 (0, 10) a 3 (0, 10) ab 5 (0, 10) a < 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 7.73 (6.27, 9.78) 8.93 (6.67, 11.36) a 7.44 (5.51, 10.80) b 6.90 (6.16, 9.50) b < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 9.3 ± 2.3 9.9 ± 2.2a 9.0 ± 2.3b 8.3 ± 2.5ab < 0.001
Scr (μmol/L) 66 (54, 76) 70 (57, 82) a 140 (114, 184) ab 114 (98, 125) ab < 0.001
BUN (mmol/L) 4.85 (4.08, 5.92) 5.40 (4.40, 6.40) a 8.60 (7.18, 11.05) ab 6.92 (5.95, 8.95) ab < 0.001
SUA (μmol/L) 338 (280, 404) 345 (289, 418) a 409 (378, 482) ab 428 (332, 486) ab < 0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 100.8 (91.2, 109.2) 94.6 (78.6, 107.5) a 43.0 (28.4, 49.9) ab 50.7 (45.9, 56.2) ab < 0.001
UACR (mg/g) 7 (4, 12) 95 (46, 217) a 432 (114, 1083) ab 6 (4, 15) bc < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.56 (1.04, 2.25) 1.74 (1.17, 2.78) a 1.74 (1.23, 2.52) 1.34 (1.03, 1.89) b < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 4.86 (4.08, 5.72) 5.11 (4.31, 6.18) a 4.99 (4.23, 5.97) 4.38 (3.69, 5.44) abc < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.07 (0.92, 1.24) 1.05 (0.90, 1.28) 1.08 (0.88, 1.31) 1.10 (0.98, 1.34) 0.735
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.02 (2.39, 3.60) 3.05 (2.40, 3.78) 2.80 (2.30, 3.77) 2.74 (1.98, 3.24) 0.221
ApoAI (mg/dL) 119.5 (107.1, 134.0) 120.0 (105.9, 138.3) 117.0 (102.4, 136.0) 125.2 (109.9, 142.5) 0.278
ApoB (mg/dL) 91.0 (74.1, 108.5) 96.8 (74.4, 114.8) a 89.4 (77.3, 112.0) 79.0 (61.7, 100.3) abc < 0.01
ApoB/ApoAI 0.76 (0.60, 0.92) 0.79 (0.61, 1.01) 0.78 (0.61, 0.96) 0.65 (0.48, 0.83) abc < 0.05
Anemia, n (%) 32 (2.9) 29 (8.1) a 39 (41.5) ab 11 (24.4) abc < 0.001
Stroke, n (%) 69 (6.2) 40 (11.1) a 20 (21.1) ab 7 (15.6) a < 0.001
Adverse cardiovascular event, n (%) 32 (2.9) 25 (6.9) a 7 (7.4) a 4 (8.9) a < 0.01
Carotid plaque, n (%) 612 (55.4) 227 (66.4) a 73 (81.1) ab 32 (74.4) a < 0.001
Carotid plaque score 1 (0, 3) 2 (0, 4) a 3 (1, 5) ab 2 (0, 4) a < 0.001
PAD, n (%) 86 (7.8) 67 (18.8) a 36 (39.1) ab 8 (18.6) ac < 0.001
DR, n (%) 111 (9.9) 83 (23.1) a 39 (41.1) ab 2 (4.4) bc < 0.001
DPN, n (%) 418 (37.3) 213 (59.2) a 68 (71.6) ab 20 (44.4) c < 0.001
Insulin administration, n (%) 231 (20.6) 104 (28.9) a 50 (52.6) ab 17 (37.8) a < 0.001
Lipid-lowering drugs, n (%) 307 (27.4) 103 (28.6) 36 (37.9) 20 (44.4) a < 0.05
Antihypertensive drugs, n (%) 356 (31.8) 181 (50.3) a 70 (73.7) ab 29 (64.4) a < 0.001
RASIs, n (%) 197 (17.6) 105 (29.2) a 46 (48.4) ab 20 (44.4) ab < 0.001
  1. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with LSD was applied for the intergroup comparisons when the data accorded with normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare variables with skewed distribution. Chi-Square test was applied to determine p-values for categorical variables. a p < 0.05 compared to the non-DKD group. b p < 0.05 compared to the ADKD group. c p < 0.05 compared to the AGDKD group. BMI Body mass index, WC Waist circumference, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, PP Pulse pressure, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, Scr Serum creatinine, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, SUA Serum uric acid, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, UACR Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, TG Triglycerides, TC Total cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoAI Apolipoprotein A, ApoB Apolipoprotein B, PAD Peripheral arterial disease, DR Diabetic retinopathy, DPN Diabetic peripheral neuropathy, RASIs Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors