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Table 2 Baseline participants’characteristics across quartiles of energy-adjusted daily calcium to magnesium ratio intake

From: Calcium to magnesium intake ratio and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development: a case-control study

  Quartiles of energy-adjusted daily calcium to magnesium ratio intake
Characteristics Q1 (n = 250) Q2 (n = 249) Q3 (n = 250) Q4 (n = 250) P value*
Age (years) 45.1 ± 13.7 41.9 ± 14.3 43.5 ± 14.1 43.3 ± 14.3 0.16
Male (%) 42.4 45 46.8 38 0.21
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.7 ± 5.2 27.8 ± 5.3 28.4 ± 5.8 29.1 ± 6.7 0.006
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) 94.4 ± 34.6 92.9 ± 34.1 89.8 ± 30 92.3 ± 27.1 0.44
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 139 ± 92.1 140 ± 109.6 133 ± 71.9 131 ± 67.9 0.69
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 179 ± 36.3 178 ± 44.4 175 ± 33.9 183 ± 37.1 0.33
High Density Lipoprotein–Cholesterol
(mg/dl)
46.7 ± 10.2 46.4 ± 11.2 47.2 ± 10.3 49.1 ± 11.8 0.44
Low Density Lipoprotein–Cholesterol
(mg/dl)
104 ± 30.7 103 ± 35.6 101 ± 29.6 107 ± 29.5 0.033
Physical activity (MET(hour/week)) 32.1 ± 4.4 34.9 ± 3.3 31 ± 3.9 33.8 ± 2.1 0.22
Alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 22.9 ± 23.1 23.7 ± 28.6 24.2 ± 14.1 23.4 ± 19.1 0.08
Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) 23.1 ± 10.3 23.6 ± 13.6 23.5 ± 9.2 22.1 ± 8.9 0.95
Current alcohol usage (%) 9.6 10.4 9.2 10 0.97
Current smoking (%) 25.6 32.1 28.8 44.2 < 0.001
Diabetes (%) 10.8 7.6 7.6 8.9 0.53
Energy (Kcal/d) 2712 ± 857 2846 ± 815 2876 ± 930 2758 ± 769 0.024
Protein (% of energy) 14.8 ± 1.5 14.4 ± 3.3 15.1 ± 1.7 14.9 ± 6.3 0.16
Carbohydrate (% of energy) 58.6 ± 12.3 56.8 ± 10.9 54.9 ± 8.2 59.1 ± 8.7 0.025
Fat (% of energy) 29.4 ± 1.3 32.5 ± 2.1 30.9 ± 7.6 29.1 ± 4.2 0.042
Total dietary fiber (g/d) 43.6 ± 16 45.4 ± 17.6 50.1 ± 36.8 50.1 ± 21.1 0.001
Magnesium (mg/d) 521 ± 178 508 ± 154 491 ± 167 434 ± 130 < 0.001
Calcium (mg/d) 879 ± 315 1106 ± 340 1249 ± 419 1404 ± 412 < 0.001
Calcium to Magnesium ratio 1.69 ± 0.20 2.17 ± 0.11 2.54 ± 0.12 3.25 ± 0.38 < 0.001
  1. Quantitative data are presented as mean ± SD and qualitative data reported as percent
  2. *one way ANOVA test and chi-square or Fisher exact test for quantitative and qualitative parameters, respectively