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Table 2 Human studies investigating the association between skin AGEs and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

From: Skin AGEs and diabetic neuropathy

First Author (year) Participants and diabetes type Method of assessment of CAN Main findings
Osawa (2018) [36] 193 T2DM/24 controls Heart rate variability Multivariate analysis (adjustment for age, sex, HbA1c, T2DM duration, BMI, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and smoking history): positive association
Meerwaldt (2005) [34] 33 T2DM and 13 T1DM/21 controls Heart rate variability Positive association
Orchard (2013) [35] 1185 T1DM Heart rate variability Positive association before adjustment for mean HbA1c over time; insignificant association after adjustment
Conway (2011) [42] 111 T1DM Electrocardiographic abnormal heart rate response to deep breathing Multivariate analysis (adjustment for age and updated mean, 18-year average, HbA1c): positive association
  1. BMI body mass index, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus