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Table 3 Results of the multivariate generalized estimating equation analysis regarding association between different factors with HRQOL dimensions

From: Longitudinal assessment of the health-related quality of life among older people with diabetes: results of a nationwide study in New Zealand

CharacteristicsSF12-PCSSF12-MCS
βa (SE)95% CIP valueβa (SE)95% CIP value
Diabetic−3.50 (0.53)−4.55, − 2.450.000−1.55 (0.57)−2.67, − 0.420.007
Age−0.09 (0.02)− 0.14, − 0.050.0000.27 (0.02)0.22, 0.310.000
Sex (ref: female)−0.54 (0.35)−1.24, 0.150.130−0.94 (0.38)−1.69, − 0.190.014
Education (ref: No Secondary)
 Secondary0.24 (0.46)−0.66, 1.160.594−0.86 (0.50)−1.83, 0.120.087
 Post- secondary/tertiary0.92 (0.41)0.11, 1.720.025−0.17 (0.44)−1.04, 0.680.684
Marital status (ref: Married/Partner)
 Divorced/separated/single0.07 (0.35)− 062, 0.770.832− 1.32 (0.39)−2.09, − 0.550.001
 Widowed−0.47 (0.42)− 1.30, 0.350.266−1.33 (0.47)−2.25, − 0.410.005
Annual Personal Income (0–25,000)
 25,001–50,0002.52 (0.39)1.75, 3.290.0002.15 (0.42)1.33, 2.980.000
 50,001–70,0003.71 (0.53)2.66, 4.750.0002.80 (0.56)1.68, 3.920.000
  > 70,0004.10 (0.58)2.96, 5.250.0002.77 (0.62)1.54, 3.990.000
Ethnicity (ref: European)
 Māori0.29 (0.35)−0.39, 0.980.3970.01 (0.37)0.72, 0.750.064
Current Smoker (ref: Non-smokers)−0.76 (0.40)−1.55, 0.020.059−1.73 (0.44)−2.61, −0.860.000
Regular Alcohol Consumptionb (ref: < 2 per weeks)0.79 (0.21)0.37, 1.220.0000.82 (0.24)0.35, 1.290.001
BMI (ref: < 25)
 25–29.9−0.65 (0.39)−1.43, 0.120.098−0.24 (0.42)−0.59, 1.070.572
  ≥ 30−3.66 (0.44)−4.53, −2.790.000−0.90 (0.47)−1.83, 0.020.056
Physical Activity (ref: No)
 Once a week2.54 (0.31)1.93, 3.160.0001.20 (0.35)0.50, 1.890.001
  ≥ 2 times per week c3.16 (0.26)2.65, 3.680.0002.23 (0.29)1.65, 2.800.000
Medical conditionsd (ref: No)
 1−2.98 (0.32)−3.61, − 2.350.000−1.52 (0.35)− 2.22, −0.830.000
 2−5.53 (0.36)−6.26, −4.810.000−3.92 (0.40)−4.71, − 3.130.000
Hypertension (ref: no)−1.17 (0.28)−1.72, −0.620.000−0.83 (0.30)− 1.43, − 0.230.007
Sight problem (ref: no)− 1.33 (0.31)−1.95, − 0.700.000−1.18 (0.35)− 1.87, − 0.480.001
Hearing problem (ref: no)− 0.48 (0.31)−1.10, 0.120.121−0.69 (0.34)−1.36, − 0.020.042
Sleep problem (ref: no)−2.17 (0.38)− 2.93, − 1.410.000−2.80 (0.42)−3.64, − 1.960.000
  1. aAdjusted model, b 2 and more drink per week, c 2 and more times per week brisk walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity, dMedical conditions including heart, stroke, chronic respiratory including asthma, liver (cirrhosis), neurologic (epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson, Alzheimer, dementia, mental disorders including depression)