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Table 1 Results of GRADE assessment

From: The effects of testosterone on bone health in males with testosterone deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis

OutcomesOutcomes Illustrative comparative risks* (95% CI)Relative effect (95% CI)No of Participants (studies)Quality of the evidence (GRADE)Comments
Assumed riskCorresponding risk
 PlaceboTestosterone therapy alone    
Total BMD (g/cm2) - average endpoint - short term Follow-up: less than 24 months The mean total bmd (g/cm2) - average endpoint - short term in the intervention groups was 0.01 lower (0.02 lower to 0.01 higher) 1081 (8 studies) low1,2 
Total BMD (g/cm2) - average endpoint - long term Follow-up: more than 24 months The mean total bmd (g/cm2) - average endpoint - long term in the intervention groups was 0.04 higher (0.07 lower to 0.14 higher) 156 (2 studies) very low1,2,3,4 
Fracture - short term Follow-up: 12 monthsStudy populationRR 0.92 (0.31 to 2.76)211 (1 study) low4,5 
59 per 100055 per 1000 (18 to 164)
Moderate
59 per 100054 per 1000 (18 to 163)
Falls - short term Follow-up: 6 monthsStudy populationRR 0.70 (0.34 to 1.45)262 (1 study) low4,5 
121 per 100085 per 1000 (41 to 176)
Moderate
121 per 100085 per 1000 (41 to 175)
Mortality - short term Follow-up: less than 24 monthsStudy populationRR 0.62 (0.3 to 1.31)598 (4 studies) low3,5 
50 per 100031 per 1000 (15 to 65)
Moderate
13 per 10008 per 1000 (4 to 17)
Mortality - long term Follow-up: more than 24 monthsStudy populationRR 0.39 (0.1 to 1.42)131 (1 study) very low3,4,5 
113 per 100044 per 1000 (11 to 160)
Moderate
113 per 100044 per 1000 (11 to 160)
Cardiovascular event - short term Follow-up: less than 24 monthsStudy populationRR 1.2 (0.44 to 3.26)1204 (8 studies) very low1,3,5 
50 per 100060 per 1000 (22 to 164)
Moderate
39 per 100047 per 1000(17 to 127)
Cardiovascular event - long term
Follow-up: more than 24 months
Study populationRR 1.42 (0.66 to 3.05)170 (2 studies) low4,5 
116 per 1000165 per 1000 (77 to 355)
Moderate
124 per 1000176 per 1000(82 to 378)
Quality of life - average endpoint (AMS, high = worse) - short term Follow-up: less than 24 months The mean quality of life - average endpoint (ams, high = worse) - short term in the intervention groups was 1.32 lower (2.11 to 0.52 lower) 1328 (8 studies) moderate6 
Sexual function - average endpoint (IIEF score, high = well) - short term Follow-up: less than 24 years The mean sexual function - average endpoint (iief score, high = well) - short term in the intervention groups was 1.48 higher (0.05 to 2.91 higher) 503 (4 studies) low1,3,7 
  1. (To be inserted in Results at Line 204 Page 9)