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Table 4 Socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with glycaemic control

From: Profile and factors associated with glycaemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes in Greece: results from the diabetes registry

 HbA1 < 7 (N = 294)HbA1 ≥ 7 (N = 392)p-value
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age (Mean, SD; years)62.99 (12.71)63.24 (12.37).788
 Sex (N, %)
  Male182 (45.7)216 (54.3).074
  Female112 (38.9)176 (61.1)
 Urbanicity (N, %)
  Rural9 (33.3)18 (66.7).316
  Urban250 (43.1)330 (56.9)
 Marital Status (N, %)
  Married124 (39.2)192 (60.8).639
  Divorced3 (50.0)3 (50.0)
  Single34 (44.4)40 (55.6)
 Educational Level (N, %)
   ≤ 12 years of education100 (41.7)140 (58.3).643
   > 12 years of education (college or university)30 (38.6)43 (61.4)
 Employment status (N, %)
  Employed34 (37.0)58 (63.0).648
  Economically inactive/student110 (42.1)151 (57.9)
  Unemployed25 (43.1)33 (56.9)
Clinical characteristics
 T2DM duration (N, %)
  6 months to 5 years97 (40.9)140 (59.1).677
  6–10 years63 (42.3)86 (57.7)
   ≥ 10 years134 (44.7)166 (55.3)
 Family history of diabetes (N, %)
  No166 (46.5)191 (53.5).045
  Yes128 (38.9)201 (61.1)
 Dyslipidemia (N, %)
  No115 (45.1)140 (54.9).380
  Yes179 (41.5)252 (58.5)
 Hypertension (N, %)
  No113 (42.0)156 (58.0).752
  Yes181 (43.4)236 (56.6)
 Pharmacological treatment (N, %)
  Oral antidiabetic agents only187 (40.6)274 (59.4).010
  Injectable antidiabetic agents only47 (58.0)34 (42.0)
  Oral and injectable antidiabetic agents44 (38.9)69 (61.1)
 No. of antidiabetic agents (N, %)
  1177 (43.3)232 (56.7).843
  279 (41.4)112 (58.6)
   ≥ 322 (40.0)33 (60.0)
 BP (N, %; (mm/Hg)
   < 130/8082 (42.1)113 (57.9).892
   ≥ 130/80116 (41.4)164 (58.6)
 Body mass index (N, %; kg/m2)
   < 25.032 (48.5)34 (51.5).420
  25.0–29.980 (44.7)99 (55.3)
   ≥30161 (40.9)223 (59.1)
 LDL (N, %; mg/dl))
   < 100143 (47.5)158 (52.5).047
   ≥ 100114 (39.3)176 (60.7)
 HDL (N, %; mg/dl)
   > 40191 (50.4)188 (49.6)<.001
   ≤ 4074 (32.3)155 (67.7)
 TG (N, %; mg/dl)
   < 150184(53.2)162 (46.8)<.001
   ≥ 15085 (31.3)187 (68.8)
 Abdominal circumference (N, %; cm)
  Target not achieved127 (41.1)182 (58.6).725
  Target achieved71 (42.8)95 (57.2)
Lifestyle behaviors
 Smoking (N, %)
   No117 (42.7)157 (57.3).953
  Former44 (41.5)62 (58.5)
  Yes69 (41.3)98 (58.7)
 Physical activity
  No256 (42.9)341 (57.1).974
  Yes38 (42.7)51 (57.3)
 Alcohol consumption per day (N, %)
  0 drinks271 (43.6)351 (56.4).289
   > 1 drink23 (35.9)41 (64.1)
 Processed starch, 3 servings per day (N, %)
  No156 (44.1)198 (55.9).508
  Yes158 (41.6)194 (58.4)
 Whole grain cereals, 3 servings per day (N, %)
  No259 (42.4)352 (57.6).480
  Yes35 (46.7)40 (53.3)
 Consuming or cooking with vegetable oil, most days (N, %)
  No252 (42.9)335 (57.1).925
  Yes42 (42.4)57 (57.6)
  1. In bold if statistically significant at the p < 0.05 or p < 0.001 level
  2. BP blood pressure, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, TG triglycerides
  3. ‡ Moderate to rigorous physical activity for at least 30 min daily, at least 3 times/week