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Table 3 Distribution of clinical characteristics among survey participants with diabetes attending five district hospitals in Rwanda from 2015 to 2016 by rural/urban residence

From: Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of diabetes mellitus in rural Rwanda: time to contextualize the interventions? A cross-sectional study

Variables Rural Urban D (95% CI) P value
N % N %
Type of diabetes
 Type 1 185 58.7 39 24.8 33.9 (24.7–41.9) < 0.001
 Type 2 104 33.0 106 67.5 34.5 (25.1–42.9) < 0.001
 Unclassified 26 8.3 12 7.6 0.7 (5.1–5.5) 0.792
Reported history of childhood malnutrition 71 22.5 10 6.4 16.1 (9.5–21.8) < 0.001
Age range
  ≤ 30 years 171 54.3 37 23.6 30.7 (21.6–38.7) < 0.001
  > 30 years 144 45.7 120 76.4
Diabetes duration
  < 12 months 32 10.2 15 9.6 0.6 (−5.7–5.9) 0.838
 12–60 months 176 55.9 62 39.4 16.5 (6.9–25.5) < 0.001
  > 60 months 107 34.0 80 51.0 17 (7.5–26.2) < 0.001
Blood glucose at diagnosis
  < 250 mg/dl 23 7.3 30 19.1 11.8 (5.4–19.0) < 0.001
 250–400 mg/dl 69 21.9 50 31.8 9.9 (1.5–18.6) 0.019
  > 400 mg/dl 180 57.1 60 38.2 18.9 (9.3–27.8) < 0.001
 Unknown 43 13.7 17 10.8 2.9 (−3.8–8.6) 0.373
Blood glucose of participant at the time of study recruitment
  < 250 mg/dl 248 78.7 139 88.5 9.8 (2.5–16.1) 0.009
 250–400 mg/dl 47 14.9 13 8.3 6.6 (0.2–12.1) 0.043
  > 400 mg/dl 20 6.4 5 3.2 3.2 (−1.4–6.9) 0.145
Number of participants with Comatose state at diagnosis 82 26.0 16 10.2 15.8 (8.5–22.2) < 0.001
Number of individuals requiring Insulin at diagnosis 214 67.9 63 40.1 27.9 (18.4–36.7) < 0.001
Number of individuals on Insulin treatment at the time of participants recruitment 203 64.4 54 34.4 30 (20.5–38.6) < 0.001
  1. N number of participants
  2. D difference