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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants: the DiaFOTo study, Western Norwaya

From: Effect of a telemedicine intervention for diabetes-related foot ulcers on health, well-being and quality of life: secondary outcomes from a cluster randomized controlled trial (DiaFOTo)

Characteristics Total Telemedicine Standard outpatient care
(n = 156) (n = 78) (n = 78)
Demographic variables
 Male sex 115 (73.7) 57 (73.1) 58 (74.4)
 Age (years) 65.5 ± 16.3 66.3 ± 16.3 64.7 ± 16.4
 Married or Cohabitant 91 (60.7) 42 (56.8) 49 (64.5)
 Education levelb
  Primary 36 (25.5) 22 (32.4) 14 (19.2)
  Secondary 73 (51.8) 34 (50.0) 39 (53.4)
  Tertiary 32 (22.7) 12 (17.7) 20 (27.4)
 Employed 34 (21.9) 18 (23.4) 16 (20.5)
 Travel distance > 25 km to hospital 40 (27.4) 21 (28.4) 19 (26.4)
Lifestyle characteristics
 Smoking (yes) 27 (18.1) 14 (18.9) 13 (17.3)
Subgroups of diabetes
 Type 1 diabetes 35 (22.4) 11 (14.1) 24 (30.8)
 Type 2 diabetes 121 (77.6) 67 (85.9) 54 (69.2)
Diabetes-related variables
 Diabetes duration, years 20.8 ± 15.0 19.8 ± 14.1 21.8 ± 15.8
 Insulin treatment 101 (65.2) 47 (61.0) 54 (69.2)
 HbA1c, (mmol/mol)c 63 ± 18.6 63 ± 17.5 64 ± 18.6
 HbA1c, (%)b 7.9 ± 1.7 7.9 ± 1.6 8.0 ± 1.7
Ulcer characteristics
 Localization of ulcer
  Toe 80 (51.3) 49 (62.7) 31 (39.8)
  Metatarsal 23 (14.7) 8 (10.3) 15 (19.2)
  Heal 12 (7.7) 7 (9.0) 5 (6.4)
  Other 41 (26.3) 14 (18.0) 27 (34.6)
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular diseased 42 (27.3) 19 (24.7) 23 (29.9)
 Neuropathye 102 (70.0) 51 (70.0) 51 (70.0)
 Renal disease, GFR < 60 58 (37.2) 31 (39.7) 27 (34.6)
 Retinopathy 53 (37.1) 23 (31.9) 30 (42.3)
Ulcer endpoints
 Healing 124 (79.5) 64 (82.1) 60 (76.9)
 Amputation 15 (9.6) 4 (5.1) 11 (14.1)
 Death 9 (5.8) 4 (5.1) 5 (6.4)
 Not healed after 12 months 8 (5.1) 6 (7.8) 2 (2.6)
  1. Data are shown as n (%) Percent of patients with valid values for categorical variables and mean ± SD for continuous variables
  2. aIn the current study we included all participants with at least one valid patient-reported outcome measure at baseline
  3. bEducation level: primary: up to 10 years of compulsory education, secondary: high school or vocational school and tertiary: college/university
  4. cHbA1c measurements were reported using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry units (mmol/mol) in addition to the derived NGSP units (%) upon attendance at the outpatient clinic
  5. dCardiovascular disease was defined as a history of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke
  6. eNeuropathy: Neuropathy was defined as an abnormal pressure sensation evaluated with the 10 g monofilament and/or presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction