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Table 1 Patient characteristics by diabetes spending trajectory

From: Not there yet: using data-driven methods to predict who becomes costly among low-cost patients with type 2 diabetes

BASELINE YEAR COVARIATES Group 1: Minimal user (N = 4907) Group 2: Low cost (N = 8.525) Group 3: Rising cost (N = 2215) Group 4: Moderate cost (N = 9594) Group 5: High cost (N = 8548)
Demographics
 Age, mean (SD) 76.3 (7.0) 75.6 (6.6) 75.9 (6.5) 75.9 (6.6) 75.9 (6.7)
 Female sex, % 52.7 51.5 51.4 57.4 61.4
 Race/ethnicity, %
  Non-Hispanic White 85.6 85.4 83.8 82.4 78.3
  Black 8.3 8.4 10.0 11.4 14.0
  Other 2.8 3.3 2.6 2.4 2.5
  Asian/Pacific Islander 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.7 2.0
  Hispanic 1.7 1.5 2.2 2.2 3.2
 Zip code median income, mean (SD) $52,822 (22,467) $52,258 (20,643) $52,568 (19,731) $51,361 (20,502) $49,546 (20,657)
 Zip code % high school grad, mean (SD) 82.9 (17.3) 83.4 (16.6) 83.8 (14.8) 82.6 (16.4) 81.0 (16.8)
Healthcare utilization
 Part D low income subsidy, % 15.1 12.0 13.0 22.7 43.8
 No. of office visits, mean (SD) a 8.5 (7.3) 8.9 (6.8) 10.0 (7.5) 10.7 (7.9) 12.1 (9.5)
 No. of physicians, mean (SD) a 2.1 (1.2) 1.9 (1.0) 2.0 (1.1) 2.0 (1.1) 2.3 (1.2)
 No. of pharmacies used, mean (SD) a 0.8 (1.2) 0.7 (1.1) 0.7 (1.1) 1.2 (1.3) 1.5 (1.2)
 No. of hospitalizations, mean (SD) a 0.7 (1.0) 0.4 (0.7) 0.4 (0.7) 0.4 (0.7) 0.5 (0.8)
 No. of ER visits, mean (SD) a 0.8 (1.5) 0.6 (1.0) 0.7 (1.1) 0.7 (1.5) 1.0 (1.5)
 No. of unique drugs, mean (SD) a 4.4 (6.5) 4.0 (6.0) 4.1 (6.4) 7.5 (7.1) 12.9 (8.1)
 Prescription generosity, mean (SD) 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.2) 0.2 (0.2) 0.2 (0.2)
 Medical benefits’ generosity, mean (SD) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1)
 Total baseline year costs, mean (SD) $20,835 (28.893) $14,191 (17,350) $16,085 (17,205) $17,353 (17,885) $24,557 (21,441)
 Chronic medication use, % 38.9 37.1 35.2 62.8 83.3
 Average adherence, mean (SD) a 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2)
Diabetes-specific
 No. of oral diabetes drugs, mean (SD) 0.1 (0.4) 0.3 (0.6) 0.4 (0.8) 1.0 (1.0) 1.2 (1.1)
 Diabetes average adherence, mean (SD) 0.6 (0.3) 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2)
 Insulin use, % 0.8 2.2 4.9 11.6 40.4
 Insulin persistence, % 36.8 61.1 62.4 77.5 87.1
 Hypoglycemia, % 1.4 1.8 1.9 2.9 5.5
 Ketoacidosis, % 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.2 2.0
 Retinopathy, % 2.8 7.5 11.3 12.7 20.2
 Nephropathy, % 0.6 1.2 1.3 2.2 3.6
 Neuropathy, % 6.1 13.8 18.2 25.4 36.1
 No. of testing supply fills, mean (SD) 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.4) 0.1 (0.7) 0.2 (0.9) 0.7 (2.2)
 Baseline year diabetes costs, mean (SD) $5868 (7476) $5644 (7313) $6535 (7386) $7147 (7437) $9321 (8902)
Comorbidities
 Comorbidity score, mean (SD) 2.1 (3.0) 1.7 (2.5) 2.1 (2.6) 2.3 (2.7) 2.4 (2.7)
 Coronary artery disease, % 18.5 12.4 15.3 14.6 19.0
 Prior MI, % 2.5 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.4
 Asthma or COPD, % 28.8 23.7 25.3 26.3 33.7
 Hypertension, % 91.2 92.6 93.1 94.5 96.4
 Renal failure or ESRD, % 9.4 5.9 7.7 7.8 12.9
 Dementia, % 5.5 2.9 4.1 3.7 7.0
 Depression, %a 14.5 11.1 13.8 13.3 19.6
 Stroke, % 3.1 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.5
 Liver disease, % 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.0
 Congestive heart failure, % 8.8 5.3 5.5 6.7 11.2
 Hyperlipidemia, % 81.4 87.0 86.7 88.7 87.6
 Atrial fibrillation, % 9.8 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.5
 Osteoporosis, % 20.6 17.8 18.4 20.4 22.2
 Obesity, %a 12.8 13.9 16.8 16.0 22.0
 Acute stress, % a 6.5 3.7 4.3 4.3 6.6
 Tobacco use, % a 18.5 14.5 15.4 15.0 15.4
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard Deviation, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ER Emergency Room, MI Myocardial infarction
  2. aPotentially-modifiable predictors