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Table 4 Associations between the changes in s-zonulin and the changes in the factors of interest after the two weight-loss interventions

From: Changes in serum zonulin in individuals with morbid obesity after weight-loss interventions: a prospective cohort study

Change in covariate Overall change Change after conservative weight loss intervention Change after bariatric surgery Interaction
B (95% CI) p-values B (95% CI) p-values B (95% CI) p-values B (95% CI) p-values
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.9 (− 1.5 to 3.3) 0.46 3.2 (−0.9 to 7.2) 0.27 −0.4 (− 3.4 to 2.6) 0.80 3.5 (− 1.5 to 8.6) 0.17
Weight (kg) −0.7 (− 3.9 to 2.5) 0.68 1.1 (− 2.7 to 5.0) 0.56 − 0.4 (− 3.6 to 2.9) 0.83 −1.5 (− 3.2 to 0.2) 0.08
GSRS-constipation 1.2 (− 4.4 to 6.9) 0.67 7.0 (−1.6 to 15.6) 0.11 −3.6 (− 11.1 to 3.8) 0.34 −10.6 (− 22.1 to 0.94) 0.07
GSRS-diarrhoea 6.6 (1.3 to 11.8) 0.02 13.6 (6.2 to 20.9) < 0.001 −0.4 (− 7.7 to 6.9) 0.91 14.0 (3.5 to 24.4) 0.009
HbA1c (%) 9.7 (1.1 to 18.3) 0.03 16.1 (5.9 to 26.3) 0.002 −6.0 (−20.9 to 8.9) 0.43 −22.1 (−4.2 to −40.0) 0.016
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) 3.5 (1.2 to 5.9) 0.004 5.1 (2.4 to 7.7) < 0.001 −2.6 (−7.9 to 2.7) 0.34 −7.6 (−1.7 to 13.6) 0.012
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 0.8 (−0.5 to 2.1) 0.22 1.2 (−0.4 to 2.9) 0.15 0.2 (−1.9 to 2.3) 0.88 −1.1 (−3.7 to 1.6) 0.43
Gamma-GT (U/L) 0.28 (0.09 to 0.47) 0.004 0.36 (0.15 to 0.58) 0.001 −0.02 (− 0.40 to 0.37) 0.93 0.38 (− 0.06 to 0.82) 0.09
  1. Analyses with linear mixed models with zonulin changes as dependent variable, and patient as random effect. The fixed effects are sex, age, body mass index, intervention period (with the intervention period given in the heading of the column as reference), the explanatory variable in the same row and the interaction between this explanatory variable and the intervention period. The interaction terms between the intervention period and the explanatory variable in the same line are also presented separately in the columns to the right with title “Interaction”
  2. TNF Tumour necrosis factor, GSRS Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, Gamma-GT Gamma-glutamyl transferase