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Table 3 Associations between s-zonulin and the explanatory variables overall and at the three points of time

From: Changes in serum zonulin in individuals with morbid obesity after weight-loss interventions: a prospective cohort study

  Overall At inclusion After the conservative weight loss intervention After bariatric surgery
B (95% CI) p B (95% CI) p B (95% CI) p B (95% CI) p
Sex (Female) −1.32 (− 8.05 to 5.40) 0.70       
Age 0.19 (− 0.15 to 0.54) 0.28       
Body mass index 0.39 (−0.40 to 1.18) 0.33       
Waist-hip-ratio 84.2 (18.2 to 150.2) 0.013 110.1 (39.1 to 181.1) 0.003 3.4 (− 154.7 to 161.5) 0.97 9.1 (− 122.7 to 140.9) 0.89
Irritable bowel syndrome 5.82 (−1.08 to 12.72) 0.10 10.16 (0.70 to 19.61) 0.04 1.19 (−11.80 to 14.17) 0.86 1.20 (−12.95 to 15.34) 0.87
GSRS-constipation −0.23 (−3.56 to 3.09) 0.89 − 0.05 (−5.17 to 5.06) 0.98 − 0.01 (− 5.54 to 5.53) 1.00 − 0.91 (−7.75 to 5.93) 0.79
GSRS-diarrhoea 3.00 (0.06 to 5.95) 0.046 5.36 (1.30 to 9.42) 0.01 0.49 (−5.45 to 6.43) 0.87 0.42 (−5.50 to 6.33) 0.89
HbA1c (%) 4.44 (1.92 to 6.96) 0.001 5.48 (2.54 to 8.42) < 0.001 1.39 (−4.01 to 6.78) 0.61 2.75 (−3.75 to 9.25) 0.41
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) 2.21 (1.09 to 3.33) < 0.001 2.56 (1.30 to 3.81) < 0.001 0.72 (−2.01 to 3.45) 0.60 1.58 (−2.44 to 5.59) 0.44
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 1.02 (0.45 to 1.58) < 0.001 1.17 (0.52 to 1.82) < 0.001 0.64 (−0.56 to 1.85) 0.30 0.37 (−1.67 to 2.42) 0.72
IL-6 (ng/mL) 1.51 (−0.04 to 3.07) 0.06 1.28 (−0.39 to 2.95) 0.13 NA   3.11 (−1.26 to 7.48) 0.16
TNF (ng/mL) 0.02 (−0.07 to 0.11) 0.69 0.03 (−0.08 to 0.14) 0.59 NA   −0.01 (− 0.16 to 0.15) 0.95
Gamma-GT (U/L) 0.16 (0.08 to 0.24) < 0.001 0.18 (0.09 to 0.27) < 0.001 0.02 (−0.18 to 0.22) 0.85 0.14 (−0.29 to 0.58) 0.52
Nutritional intake of
 Energy (kJ) 1.87 (0.43 to 3.31) 0.01 2.30 (−0.71 to 3.90) 0.005 NA   −0.16 (4.05 to 3.73) 0.94
 Proteins (g) 0.23 (0.08 to 0.38) 0.003 0.28 (0.11 to 0.44) 0.001 NA   0.007 (−0.325 to 0.339) 0.97
 Fats (g) 0.18 (0.05 to 0.30) 0.006 0.19 (0.06 to 0.32) 0.003 NA   −0.06 (−0.47 to 0.35) 0.77
 Carbohydrates (g) 0.03 (−0.01 to 0.08) 0.13 0.04 (−0.01 to 0.08) 0.12 NA   0.004 (−0.125 to 0.134) 0.95
 Starch (g) 0.54 (−0.59 to 0.17) 0.35 0.07 (−0.05 to 0.19) 0.26 NA   −0.04 (− 0.32 to 0.24) 0.78
 Fibre (g) 0.34 (−0.17 to 0.84) 0.19 0.50 (−0.07 to 1.08) 0.09 NA   −0.27 (−1.23 to 0.70) 0.59
 Sugar (g) 0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11) 0.46 0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11) 0.48 NA   0.10 (−0.46 to 0.67) 0.72
 Non-nutritive sweeteners (u)a 0.68 (0.19 to 1.17) 0.007 0.76 (0.23 to 1.30) 0.006 NA   0.30 (−0.72 to 1.32) 0.56
Dysbiosis indexb 6.95 (3.11 to 10.80) 0.001 6.76 (2.32 to 11.19) 0.003 NA   7.54 (−1.35 to 16.43) 0.10
  1. Analyses with linear mixed models with zonulin as dependent variable, and patient as random effect. The fixed effects in the left column are sex, age, body mass index, the explanatory variable in the same row and time (as a three level categorical covariate). In the three other columns, the fixed effects are sex, age, body mass index and time (with the time point given in the heading of the column as reference), the explanatory variable in the same row and the interaction term between this explanatory variable and time
  2. S-zonulin Serum-zonulin, TNF Tumour necrosis factor, GSRS Gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, NA Not available, Gamma-GT Gamma-glutamyltransferase
  3. aOne unit corresponds to 100 ml of beverage with non-nutritive sweeteners
  4. bThe dysbiosis index range from 1 to 5, values > 2 indicate gut microbial dysbiosis