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Table 1 Participant characteristics before and after the conservative and surgical weight loss interventions

From: Changes in serum zonulin in individuals with morbid obesity after weight-loss interventions: a prospective cohort study

  At inclusion After the conservative weight loss intervention After bariatric surgery
n   N   n  
Sex (%Female) 143 110 (77%)     
Age (years) 143 43.0 (8.7)     
Current smoker 138 25 (18%)     
Weight (kg) 140 123.5 (18.8) 108 114.0 (17.8) 73 87.5 (15.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 140 42.1 (3.8) 107 38.7 (3.8) 72 29.8 (3.8)
Waist-hip-ratio 131 0.98 (0.10) 8 0.98 (0.14) 26 0.94 (0.09)
Irritable bowel syndrome (yes/no) 133 36 (27%) 91 18 (20%) 76 20 (26%)
GSRS-constipation 134 1.5 (0.8) 95 1.6 (0.9) 73 1.8 (0.9)
GSRS-diarrhoea 127 1.8 (1.0) 89 1.5 (0.9) 80 1.6 (0.9)
HbA1c (%) 143 5.9 (1.4) 99 5.5 (0.9) 96 5.2 (0.8)
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) 143 6.6 (3.1) 110 5.8 (1.7) 96 5.4 (1.2)
S-Zonulin (ng/ml) 141 63 (32) 96 43 (7) 94 29 (18)
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 143 6.9 (6.2) 110 4.4 (3.9) 96 1.9 (2.5)
IL-6 (ng/mL) 139 2.8 (2.9)   NA 94 2.2 (1.4)
TNF (ng/mL) 140 12.1 (41.9)   NA 94 10.6 (38.1)
Gamma-GT (U/L) 143 43 (45) 98 32 (24) 96 17 (13)
Nutritional intake of
 Energy (MJ) 96 11 (4)   NA 71 6 (5)
 Proteins (g) 96 111 (35)   NA 71 75 (58)
 Fats (g) 96 99 (46)   NA 71 58 (49)
 Carbohydrates (g) 96 275 (125)   NA 71 158 (110)
 Starch (g) 96 134 (50)   NA 71 69 (38)
 Fibre (g) 96 34 (10)   NA 71 22 (10)
 Sugar (g) 96 47 (75)   NA 71 19 (26)
 Non-nutritive sweeteners (unitsa) 96 8 (11)   NA 71 6 (7)
Dysbiosis Indexb 100 2.8 (1.3)   NA 42 4.1 (1.0)
  1. Data are given as mean (standard deviation) or number (percentage)
  2. S-zonulin Serum-zonulin, GSRS Gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, TNF Tumor necrosis factor, Gamma-GT Gamma-glutamyl transferase, NA Not available
  3. aOne unit corresponds to 100 ml of beverage with non-nutritive sweeteners
  4. bThe dysbiosis index range from 1 to 5, values > 2 indicate gut microbial dysbiosis