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Table 1 Sample characteristics (socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric, and biochemical factors)

From: Evaluation of risk factors for insulin resistance: a cross sectional study among employees at a private university in Lebanon

  Total (n = 286) Men (n = 134) Women (n = 152)  
Characteristics n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD P-value
Age (years) 41.2 11.0 43.7 11.8 39.0 9.7 < 0.001
Medical morbidity
 - No 187 65.4 83 61.9 104 68.4 0.250
 - Yes 99 34.6 51 38.1 48 31.6  
Smoking
 - No 182 63.6 73 54.5 109 71.7 0.003
 - Yes 104 36.4 61 45.5 43 28.3  
Alcohol drinking        
 - No 215 75.2 89 66.4 126 82.9 < 0.001
 - Yes 71 24.8 45 33.6 26 17.1  
PA1 level
 - Low 183 64.0 82 61.2 101 66.4 0.356
 - Moderate/High 103 36.0 52 38.8 51 33.6  
Marital status
 - Single/ Separated/ Divorced 105 36.7 45 33.6 60 39.5 0.302
 - Married 181 63.3 89 66.4 92 60.5  
Education level
 - High school 57 19.9 37 27.6a 20 13.2a 0.003
 - Bachelor degree 76 26.6 27 20.1a 49 32.2a  
 - Graduate 153 53.5 70 52.2 83 54.6  
Income ($)
 - < 2250 85 29.7 44 32.8 41 27.0 0.109
 - 2250–4000 81 28.3 30 22.4 51 33.6  
 - > 4000 120 42.0 60 44.8 60 39.5  
BMI2
 - Underweight 2 0.7 0 0.0 2 1.3 < 0.001
 - Normal 112 39.2 25 18.7a 87 57.2a  
 - Overweight 107 37.4 69 51.5a 38 25.0a  
 - Obese 65 22.7 40 29.9a 25 16.4a  
PBF3 30.6 8.0 27.1 6.7 33.7 7.7 < 0.001
Waist circumference risky4
 - No 152 53.1 74 55.2 78 51.3 0.509
 - Yes 134 46.9 60 44.8 74 48.7  
Calories (Cal) 1942.2 811.5 2165.9 944.3 1744.9 611.6 < 0.001
Dairy product intake (serving/ day) 2.2 1.0 2.2 1.0 2.2 1.0 0.999
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.0 0.9 5.3 1.2 4.8 0.5 < 0.001
Insulin (uIU/ ml) 12.1 8.0 12.3 6.8 11.8 8.9 0.604
Hypertriglyceridemia
 - Normal TG5 levels 204 71.3 75 56.0 129 84.9 < 0.001
 - Hypertriglyceridemia 82 28.7 59 44.0 23 15.1  
Cholesterol6
 - Desirable 185 64.7 90 67.2 95 62.5 0.410
 - High 101 35.3 44 32.8 57 37.5  
HDL7
 - Normal 219 76.6 100 74.6 119 78.3 0.466
 - Low 67 23.4 34 25.4 33 21.7  
LDL8
 - Optimal 98 34.5 47 35.6 51 33.6 0.717
 - Above optimal 186 65.5 85 64.4 101 66.4  
CRP9
 - Low/ moderate 124 43.4 46 34.3 78 51.3 0.004
 - High 162 56.6 88 65.7 74 48.7  
  1. 1 Physical activity
  2. 2 Body Mass Index - BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, normal weight 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25–29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥30 kg/m2 [44]
  3. 3 Percent body fat
  4. 4 Risky waist circumference: > 102 cm in men, > 88 cm in women [44]
  5. 5 Triglycerides – Normal levels: < 150 mg/ dL [45]
  6. 6 Desirable levels: < 200 mg/dL [45]
  7. 7 High Density Lipoprotein – Normal levels: ≥40 mg/ dL, ≥50 mg/ dL [45]
  8. 8 Low Density Lipoprotein – Optimal levels: < 100 mg/dL [45]
  9. 9 C-Reactive Protein – Low/ moderate levels: < 3 mg/L [46]
  10. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, P < 0.05