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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants at the baseline examination

From: Impact of metabolically healthy obesity on the risk of incident gastric cancer: a population-based cohort study

 AllMHNOMHOMANOMAOp
N19,685833165372763425
Age, years (mean ± SD)45.5 ± 9.542.6 ± 8.743.8 ± 8.3 *48.3 ± 9.7 *†47.0 ± 9.0 *†‡< 0.001
Men, % (n)59.9% (11,782)42.0% (3496)424/2295088/21882774/651< 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 (mean ± SD)22.6 ± 3.320.7 ± 2.126.7 ± 1.7 *22.1 ± 1.9 *†27.6 ± 2.5 *†‡< 0.001
Waist circumference, cm (mean ± SD)78.0 ± 9.672.3 ± 7.086.9 ± 6.0 *77.9 ± 6.8 *†90.6 ± 7.2 *†‡< 0.001
SBP, mmHg (mean ± SD)117.5 ± 16.3108.0 ± 10.7116.1 ± 8.9 *122.2 ± 16.2 *†130.8 ± 15.2 *†‡< 0.001
DBP, mmHg (mean ± SD)73.7 ± 11.267.2 ± 7.872.6 ± 6.7 *76.9 ± 11.0 *†82.6 ± 10.1 *†‡< 0.001
FPG, mmol/L (mean ± SD)5.4 ± 0.95.0 ± 0.35.1 ± 0.3 *5.6 ± 1.0 *†6.0 ± 1.3 *†‡< 0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L (median (interquartile range))0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.6 (0.4–0.8)0.8 (0.6–1.2) *1.0 (0.6–1.5) *†1.3 (0.9–1.9) *†‡< 0.001
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L (mean ± SD)1.4 ± 0.41.6 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.3 *1.3 ± 0.4 *†1.2 ± 0.3 *†‡< 0.001
Exercise16,111/357481.4% (6781)540/1135911/13652879/5460.002
Smoking status     < 0.001
 Never- smoker, % (n)53.2% (10,480)65.0% (5414)53.0% (346)45.9% (3342)40.2% (1378) 
 Ex-smoker, % (n)22.4% (4405)16.0% (1331)23.4% (153)26.1% (1897)29.9% (1024) 
 Current smoker, % (n)24.3% (4776)16.5% (1375)23.6% (154)27.9% (2029)29.7% (1018) 
Smoking burden, pack-years (median (interquartile range))0 (0–305)0 (0–120)0 (0–300) *50 (0–420) *†150 (0–460) *†‡< 0.001
Alcohol consumption, g/wk. (median (interquartile range))4.2 (0–90)1 (0–54)1 (0–66) *12 (0–126) *†12 (1–126) *†0.070
  1. MHNO Metabolically healthy non-obesity; MHO Metabolically healthy obesity; MANO Metabolically abnormal non-obesity; MAO Metabolically abnormal obesity; BMI Body mass index; SBP Systolic blood pressure; DBP Diastolic blood pressure; FPG Fasting plasma glucose; HDL High-density lipoprotein. Data are the % (number), mean ± standard deviation, or median (interquartile range). The analyses of continuous variables to assess differences among the four groups were performed using one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis Test, followed by Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference Test or Steel-Dwass Test. The analyses of categorical variables among the four groups were determined by Pearson’s Chi-Squared Test. *, p < 0.05 vs. MHNO; †, p < 0.05 vs. MHO; and ‡, p < 0.05 vs. MANO