Skip to main content

Table 2 Scores on clinical outcomes of the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months

From: Effects of the Proactive interdisciplinary self-management (PRISMA) program on self-reported and clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

n (%)/mean ± SD/median (25–75 quartiles)Baseline–0 monthsRCT phase–6 monthsExtension phase–12 months
 Intervention group (n = 95)Control group (n = 98)Intervention group (n = 95)Control group (n = 98)Intervention group (n = 95)Control group (n = 98) 
  Analyzed (n) Analyzed (n) Analyzed (n) Analyzed (n)Mean / mediana difference (95% CI)p-value Analyzed (n) Analyzed (n)Mean / mediana difference (95% CI)p-value
PAM sum score
higher scores represent higher levels of patient activation (range 13–52)
40.88 ± 5.4857 (60)41.95 ± 5.0864 (65.3)40.07 ± 5.7659 (62.1)41.78 ± 5.3859 (60.2)0.63 (−1.77–3.03)0.6040.53 ± 5,3647 (49.5)41.20 ± 5.2744 (44.9)0.019 (−2.23–2.28)0.99
SDSCA diabetes self-care behavior in days a week (range 0–7)
General diet6.00 (4.75–7.00)57 (60)5.50 (4.75–6.75)57 (58.2)6.00 (5.00–7.00)59 (62.1)6.00 (5.00–7.00)57 (58.2)− 0.08a (− 0.84–1.00)0.616.00 (5.00–7.00)46 (48.4)6.00 (5.00–7.00)43 (43.9)0.03 a (− 0.63–0.74)0.20
Specific diet5.50 (4.50–6.00)60 (63.2)6.00 (5.00–6.50)60 (61.2)5.50 (4.60–6.00)60 (63.2)5.50 (4.50–6.30)58 (59.2)−0.06a (− 0.63–0.74)0.555.50 (4.50–6.00)49 (51.6)5.5 (5.00–6.50)45 (45.9)− 0.09a (− 0.67–0.86)0.92
Exercise5.00 (3.00–6.00)59 (62.1)4.50 (2.90–6.00)62 (63.3)4.00 (3.00–5.40)60 (63.2)4.00 (3.00–6.00)57 (58.2)0.13a (− 1.09–0.83)0.174.50 (2.50–6.00)49 (51.6)5.00 (3.50–6.50)43 (43.9)− 0.21a (− 1.28–1.20)0.21
Blood glucose control0.00 (0.00–0.50)59 (62.1)0.00 (0.00–0.50)62 (63.3)0.00 (0.00–0.50)61 (64.2)0.00 (0.00–0.50)59 (60.2)0.11a (−2.70–0.97)0.490.00 (0.00–0.88)48 (50.5)0.00 (0.00–0.50)44 (44.9)0.00a (− 0.06–0.06)0.30
Foot care1.00 (0.00–3.50)57 (60)1.00 (0.00–3.30)61 (62.2)1.00 (0.00–3.50)58 (61.1)1.75 (0.00–3.50)58 (59.2)0.31a (−2.58–0.46)0.781.50 (0.00–4.13)50 (52.6)1.25 (0.00–3.50)44 (44.9)− 0.26a (− 1.20–2.21)0.04
Medication7.00 (7.00–7.00)58 (61.1)7.00 (7.00–7.00)59 (60.2)7.00 (7.00–7.00)56 (58.9)7.00 (7.00–7.00)55 (56.1)−0.18 (− 0.53–0.16)0.307.00 (7.00–7.00)48 (50.5)7.00 (7.00–7.00)39 (39.8)−0.51 (− 1.11–0.09)0.07
Smoking
number of patients who smoked in the last 7 days
7 (14.2)49 (51.6)4 (7.1)60 (61.2)9 (15.5)59 (62.1)6 (11.8)51 (52.0)0.02 (−0.06–0.10)0.627 (14.9)47 (49.5)4 (8.9)45 (45.9)0.06 (−0.02–0.14)0.16
EQ-5D index score
higher scores represent higher levels of health-related quality of life (range 0–1)
0.89 (0.84–1.00)58 (61.1)0.89 (0.84–1.00)62 (63.3)0.84 (0.77–1.00)63 (66.3)0.84 (0.78–1.00)61 (62.2)− 0.00 (− 0.06–0.05)0.920.89 (0.81–1.00)48 (50.5)0.88 (0.79–1.00)46 (46.9)0.01 (− 0.68–0.09)0.76
EQ-VAS
higher scores represent higher levels of health-related quality of life(range 0–100)
80.00 (71.30–90.00)56 (58.9)80.00 (70.00–90.00)56 (57.1)80.00 (65.00–90.00)57 (60)80.00 (70.00–86.30)44 (55.1)−8,11 (− 15.01– − 1.22)0.0280.00 (70.00–90.00)43 (45.3)80.00 (79.50–90.00)42 (42.9)−6.65 (− 15.27–-1.21)0.13
WHO-5 index score higher scores represent higher levels of emotional well-being (range 0–100)76.00 (61.00–80.00)56 (58.9)80.00 (72.00–80.00)57 (58.2)76.00 (57.00–80.00)56 (58.9)72.00 (64.00–80.00)55 (56.1)−3.90a (−.07–15.870.9378.00 (65.00–80.00)42 (44.2)76.00 (68.00–80.00)39 (39.8)−5.21 (− 13.88–3.47)0.23
  1. SD = standard deviation; RCT = randomized controlled trial; PAM = patient activation measure; SDSCA = summary of diabetes self-care activities; EQ-5D = euroqol five dimension; EQ-VAS = euroqol visual analog; WHO-5 = world health organization well-being index 5-item