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Table 2 Current criteria for testing for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in asymptomatic adults, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) [7]

From: Sociodemographic and lifestyle-related risk factors for identifying vulnerable groups for type 2 diabetes: a narrative review with emphasis on data from Europe

ADA-recommended criteria for testing for prediabetes or T2DM in asymptomatic adults
1. Testing should be considered in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (or ≥ 23 kg/m2 in Asian Americans) who have at least one of the following risk factors:
(i) First-degree relative with diabetes
(ii) Race/ethnicity related to high T2DM risk
(iii) History of cardiovascular disease
(iv) Hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or on treatment for hypertension)
(v) HDL-cholesterol plasma levels < 35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or triglyceride plasma levels > 250 mg/dL (2.82 mmol/L)
(vi) Physical inactivity
(vii) Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
(viii) Other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g. acanthosis nigricans)
2. Annual testing should be performed in patients with prediabetes [i.e. impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or HbA1C ≥5.7% (39 mmol/mol)]
3. Lifelong testing at least every 3 years should be performed in women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
4. Testing should begin at the age of 45 years for all other individuals
5. If results are normal, testing should be repeated at least every 3 years, with consideration for more frequent testing depending on the initial results and risk status.