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Table 3 Association between LDL levels with the type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy risks

From: Associations of serum low-density lipoprotein and systolic blood pressure levels with type 2 diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy: systemic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of observational studies

Subgroup analyses N (%) T2DM with DPN* T2DM without DPN SMD (95% CI) * Heterogeneity
Mean + SD Mean + SD P-value** I-squared
Ethnicity America 3 (8.3) 2.54 + 1.02 2.61 + 0.85 0.07 (−0.24–0.37) <0.001 84.92
Asia 29 (80.6) 2.75 + 0.96 2.82 + 0.88 0.07 (0.01–0.12) <0.001 78.97
Europe 4 (11.2) 3.21 + 0.90 3.37 + 0.95 0.16 (− 0.06–0.38) 0.03 66.96
Study type Case control 11 (30.6) 2.87 + 1.11 2.90 + 1.02 0.03 (− 0.05–0.11) 0.12 34.80
Cohort 3 (8.3) 2.82 + 0.60 2.98 + 0.62 0.16 (− 0.05–0.37) <0.001 84.15
Cross-sectional 22 (61.1) 2.71 + 0.89 2.78 + 0.83 0.07 (0.01–0.13) <0.001 80.52
Total (Random Effect Model) 36 (100) 2.78 + 0.98 2.86 + 0.91 0.08 (0.03–0.13) <0.001 88.10
  1. *The negative combined effect suggests that the LDL mean was higher in the non- type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy comparable group i.e. diabetes whereas the positive value would suggest greater LDL mean values in the type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy group
  2. **P-values is calculated LDL mean between the T2DM with and without DPN
  3. All LDL is reported in mmol/L
  4. Abbreviations: N, number; T2DM, type-2 diabetes mellitus; DPN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy; SMD, standardized mean difference; Cl: Confidence interval