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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients by presence of Lower Limb Amputation in diabetes clinic, 2010–2015

From: Incidence and determinants of diabetes-related lower limb amputations in Ghana, 2010–2015- a retrospective cohort study

Parameters Combined Lower Limb Amputation No Lower Limb Amputation p-value
(n = 3143) (n = 78) (n = 3065)
Gender
 Female, n (%) 1952 (62.1) 30 (38.5) 1922(62.7) < 0.001
Age, mean ± SD 59.5 ± 14.6 62.2 ± 11.8 58.5 ± 14.9 0.02
Age at diagnosis, mean ± SD 49.2 ± 11.2 46.2 ± 10.2 52.2 ± 11.6 < 0.001
Duration of diabetes 10.2 ± 5.6 10.9 ± 6.8 9.6 ± 4.9 0.08
Location of domicile 0.29
 Urban 2567 (81.7) 52 (56.7) 2515 (82.1) 0.002
 Semi-urban 409 (13.0) 8 (10.3) 401 (13.1) 0.61
 Rural 167 (5.3) 18 (23.1) 149 (4.7) < 0.001
Highest educational attainment 0.03
 None 454 (14.3) 23 (29.5) 431 (14.1) < 0.001
 Primary 604 (19.2) 23 (29.5) 601 (19.6) 0.04
 Secondary 1389 (44.2) 26 (33.3) 1644 (53.6) < 0.001
 Tertiary 695 (22.1) 6 (7.8) 389 (12.7) 0.23
Employment status
 Skilled academic 298 (9.5) 21 (26.9) 277 (9.0) < 0.001
 Manual worker 1763 (56.1) 32 (41.0) 1731 (56.4) 0.01
 Retired 426 (13.6) 16 (20.5) 410 (13.4) 0.09
 Unemployed 517 (16.4) 9 (11.5) 508 (16.8) 0.28
Duration before referral to Centre, mean ± SD (years) 3.8 ± 2.5 5.4 ± 1.7 1.3 ± 2.2 0.001
Diabetes type 0.25
 Type 1 192 (6.1) 2 (2.6) 156 (5.1) 0.43
 Type 2 2793 (88.9) 76 (97.8) 2717 (88.6) 0.001
 Others 168 (5.3) 0 (0) 192 (6.3)
Vascular risk factors
 Hypertension, n (%) 2678 (85.2) 74 (94.9) 2604 (84.6) 0.02
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 1897 (60.4) 59 (75.6) 1838 (60.0) 0.004
 Cigarette smoking n (%) 36 (1.1) 9 (11.5) 27 (0.9) 0.84
 Alcohol Use, n (%) 756 (24.1) 18 (23.1) 738 (24.1) 0.43
 Waist-to-Hip ratio, mean ± SD 0.93 ± 0.09 0.95 ± 0.05 0.94 ± 0.08 0.18
 Body Mass Index, mean ± SD 28.0 ± 3.3 26.0 ± 3.7 27.1 ± 3.6 0.007
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 143 ± 35.1 156 ± 43.1 130 ± 18.9 0.0001
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 89.3 ± 23.2 96.2 ± 22.1 82.4 ± 14.4 0.0001
Therapy
 Lipid-lowering therapy, n (%) 1245 (39.6) 12 (15.4) 1233 (40.2) < 0.0001
 Antiplatelet therapy, n (%) 1345 (42.8) 23 (29.5) 1322 (43.1) 0.01
 ACE/ARB Inhibition, n (%) 2567 (81.7) 35 (44.9) 2532 (80.6) < 0.0001
 Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 2064 (65.7) 64 (82.1) 2000 (65.3) < 0.0001
 Centrally acting agents, n (%) 478 (15.2) 13 (16.7) 465 (15.1) 0.75
 Diuretics, n (%) 1567 (49.9) 12 (15.4) 1355 (44.2) < 0.001
 Metformin, n (%) 2975 (94.7) 48 (61.5) 2927 (94.5) < 0.001
 Sulphonylureas, n (%) 2456 (78.1) 63 (80.8) 2393 (78.1) 0.68
 DPP4 Inhibitors, n (%) 102 (3.2) 1 (1.3) 101 (3.3) 0.52
 Insulin, n (%) 624 (19.9) 2 (2.6) 622 (20.3) < 0.001
Glycemic control
 Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 8.9 ± 5.2 12.6 ± 5.6 7.9 ± 4.5 < 0.0001
 HbA1c (%) 8.1 ± 2.1 10.4 ± 3.2 7.5 ± 4.2 < 0.0001
 Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate 42.2 ± 9.8 29.2 ± 6.8 66.4 ± 5.6 < 0.0001
Peripheral sensory neuropathy 867 (27.6) 66 (84.6) 801 (26.1) < 0.0001
Peripheral Vascular Disease 87 (2.8) 26 (33.3) 61 (2.0) < 0.0001
  1. n number, SD standard deviation, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, DPP4, dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin