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Table 2 Clinical characteristics by level of glycaemic control

From: Glycaemic control for people with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia – an urgent need for a review of management plan

Variable Glycaemic control P-value
Good (HbA1c < 7.0%) n = 263 Partial (HbA1c 7.0% - 7.9) n = 237 Poor (HbA1c ≥ 8%) n = 592
Diabetes Duration % (n)
  ≤ 10 years 34.7 (143) 25.5 (105) 39.8 (164) <  0.001
  > 10 years 17.5 (119) 19.4 (132) 63.0 (428)  
Family history of diabetes % (n)
 Yes 22.9 (187) 22.2 (181) 54.9 (447) 0.325
 No 27.2 (75) 20.3 (56) 52.5 (145)  
Modality of treatment
 Oral tablets 36.4 (219) 25.8 (155) 37.9 (228) <  0.001
 Injectable 9.9 (22) 18.5 (41) 71.6 (159)  
 Oral and injectable 7.9 (21) 15.4 (41) 76.8 (205)  
Main follow up centre % (n)
 Hospital 34.2 (42) 22.0 (27) 43.9 (54) 0.019
 Primary care centre 24 (125) 23.0 (120) 53.0 (276)  
 Diabetes centre 21.3 (95) 20.1 (90) 58.6 (262)  
Glucometer use % (n)
 Once or more a week 21.4 (145) 21.7 (147) 57.0 (387) 0.017
 Less than once a week 28.6 (118) 21.8 (90) 49.6 (205)  
Hypoglycaemia events % (n)
 None 26.9 (170) 21.1 (133) 52.0 (328) 0.016
 1–5 times 18.2 (71) 22.8 (89) 59.1 (231)  
 6 times and more 30.4 (21) 21.7 (15) 47.8 (33)  
Medication adherence % (n)
 Adequate 26.0 (165) 22.4 (142) 51.7 (328) 0.110
 Inadequate 21.4 (98) 20.8 (95) 57.8 (264)  
Family support with diet % (n)
 Good 23.5 (103) 22.2 (97) 54.3 (238) 0.621
 Inadequate 23.0 (73) 23.9 (76) 53.1 (169)  
 Poor 25.9 (87) 19.1 (64) 55.1 (185)  
Family support with physical activity % (n)
 Good 21.4 (66) 21.0 (65) 57.6 (178) 0.460
 Inadequate 23.2 (74) 23.2 (74) 53.6 (171)  
 Poor 26.5 (123) 21.1 (98) 52.4 (243)  
knowledge about HbA1c % (n)
 Aware 29.5 (103) 20.3 (71) 50.1 (175) 0.016
 Not aware 21.5 (160) 22.3 (166) 56.1 (417)  
Body mass index % (n)
 Underweight/normal 22.7 (25) 20.9 (23) 56.4 (62) 0.075
 Pre-obesity 26.4 (78) 26.4 (78) 47.1 (139)  
 Obesity (class I – III) 23.3 (158) 20.0 (136) 56.7 (385)  
Waist-hip ratio % (n)
 Normal 26.4 (144) 24.8 (135) 48.8 (266) 0.001
 High (male: >  0.96, female: > 0.98) 22.1 (96) 17.5 (76) 60.5 (263)  
Depression % (n)
 No 24.1 (220) 22.3 (203) 53.6 (489) 0.563
 Yes 23.9 (43) 18.9 (34) 57.2 (103)  
Anxiety % (n)
 No 24.2 (224) 22.4 (207) 53.4 (493) 0.328
 Yes 23.2 (39) 17.9 (30) 58.9 (99)  
Cognitive function % (n)
 Intact 24.3 (169) 21.4 (149) 54.2 (377) 0.709
 Impaired 22.1 (59) 23.2 (62) 54.7 (146)  
Dyslipidaemia % (n)
 No 29.6 (45) 23.0 (35) 47.4 (72) 0.142
 Yes 23.2 (218) 21.5 (202) 55.3 (520)  
Hypertension % (n)
 No 22.8 (74) 20.3 (66) 56.9 (185) 0.503
 Yes 24.6 (189) 22.3 (171) 53.1 (407)  
Macrovascular complications
 No 25.3 (199) 23.1 (182) 51.6 (406) 0.019
 Yes 21.0 (64) 18.0 (55) 61.0 (186)  
Microvascular complication
 No 29.4 (146) 23.7 (118) 46.9 (233) <  0.001
 Yes 19.7 (117) 20.0 (119) 60.3 (359)