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Table 1 Demographic and lifestyle characteristics by level of glycaemic control

From: Glycaemic control for people with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia – an urgent need for a review of management plan

Variable Glycaemic control P-value
Good (HbA1c < 7.0%) n = 263 Partial (HbA1c 7.0% - 7.9) n = 237 Poor (HbA1c ≥ 8%) n = 592
Age % (n)
  > 60 years 28.4 (109) 22.4 (86) 49.2 (189) 0.106
 46–60 years 21.4 (123) 21.6 (124) 57.0 (327)  
  < 46 years 23.1 (31) 20.2 (27) 56.7 (76)  
Gender: female % (n)
 Female 22.9 (162) 20.9 (148) 56.3 (399) 0.173
 Male 26.4 (101) 23.2 (89) 50.4 (193)  
Nationality % (n)
 Saudi 23.6 (246) 21.7 (226) 54.7 (570) 0.207
 Non-Saudi 34.0 (17) 22.0 (11) 44.0 (22)  
Education level % (n)
 University/college 30.9 (60) 28.9 (56) 40.2 (78) < 0.001
 Lower education level 22.6 (203) 20.2 (181) 57.2 (514)  
Location of residency % (n)
 Urban 24.3 (229) 22.9 (216) 52.8 (497) 0.002
 Rural 30.4 (28) 15.2 (14) 54.4 (50)  
 Remote 10.3 (6) 12.1 (7) 77.6 (45)  
Working status % (n)
 Working 23.9 (55) 20.4 (47) 55.7 (128) 0.005
 Not working / house-wife 21.6 (141) 21.0 (137) 57.4 (374)  
 Retired 31.9 (67) 25.2 (53) 42.9 (90)  
Household income % (n)
  ≥ 6001 SAR 25.2 (148) 23.7 (139) 51.1 (300) 0.074
  < 6001 SAR 22.8 (115) 19.4 (98) 57.8 (292)  
Region % (n)
 Riyadh 26.4 (161) 22.5 (137) 51.1 (311) 0.125
 Jeddah 22.7 (56) 21.5 (53) 55.9 (138)  
 Hofuf 19.5 (46) 19.9 (47) 60.6 (143)  
Active smoking % (n)
 Never 24.6 (230) 21.9 (205) 53.5 (501) 0.563
 In the past (> 1 year) 20.7 (19) 17.4 (16) 62.0 (57)  
 Current smoker 22.2 (14) 25.4 (16) 52.4 (33)  
Eating habit score (mean ± SD) 30.2 ± 4.4 29.6 ± 5.1 29.8 ± 5.1 0.451
Fruits and vegetables % (n)
 Daily 31.3 (76) 20.2 (49) 48.6 (118) 0.011
 Less frequent 21.9 (186) 22.2 (188) 55.9 (474)  
Physical Activity % (n)
  ≥ 150 min/week 29.0 (94) 21.9 (71) 49.1 (159) 0.032
  < 150 min/week 22.0 (169) 21.6 (166) 56.4 (433)  
Sitting hours (mean ± SD) 6.1 ± 3.6 5.8 ± 3.5 6.2 ± 3.8 0.380