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Table 1 Main characteristics of the included trials

From: Postoperative tight glycemic control significantly reduces postoperative infection rates in patients undergoing surgery: a meta-analysis

First author Type of surgery Patient type Sample Time of intervention Insulin infusion protocol Mean age (mean ± SD, year) Male (%) BMI(mean ± SD)
    TGC/CGC    TGC CGC TGC CGC TGC CGC
Van Den et al. (2001) various surgeries adult 1548(765/783) postoperative Yes 63.4 ± 13.6 62.2 ± 13.9 71 71 26.2 ± 4.4 25.8 ± 4.7
Salah M et al. (2013) cardiac surgery adult 100(50/50) Intra + post operative Yes 46.0 ± 9.0 49.0 ± 8.0 60 70 28.0 ± 0.8 26.0 ± 2.0
Konstantinos et al. (2013) cardiac surgery adult 212(105/107) postoperative Yes 64.9 ± 11.5 66.9 ± 11.1 66 68 27.8 ± 4.4 28.0 ± 3.9
Amisha et al. (2017) liver transplantation adult 164(82/82) postoperative Yes 58.1 ± 8.0 56.9 ± 7.6 65 65 30.3 ± 6.0 30.0 ± 6.6
Rehong Zheng et al. (2010) cardiac surgery adult 100(50/50) Intra + post operative Yes 43.3 ± 11.7 44.0 ± 11.5 48 46   
Raquel Pei Chen Chan et al. (2009) cardiac surgery adult 108(54/55) Intra + post operative Yes 57.0 ± 12.0 58 ± 12 43 56 24.0 ± 3.4 26.0 ± 4.9
Shou-gen Cao et al. (2011) elective radical gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy adult 248(125/123) postoperative Yes 58.5 ± 8.1 59.9 ± 7.6 67 64 20.8 ± 2.1 21.2 ± 2.1
Shou-gen Cao et al. (2011) elective radical gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy adult 179(92/87) postoperative Yes 58.2 ± 6.3 59.4 ± 7.3 30 34 21.1 ± 2.0 22.2 ± 2.6
Takehiro Okabayashi et al. (2014) hepatectomy or pancreatectomy adult 447(222/225) Intra + post operative No 66.7 ± 10.1 66.4 ± 10.4 64 67 23.3 ± 3.6 23.1 ± 3.4
Ehab A. Wahby et al. (2016) cardiac surgery adult 135(67/68) Intra + post operative No 54.99 ± 6.49 56.40 ± 7.79 73 68   
Federico Bilotta et al. (2009) Neurosurgical adult 483(241/242) postoperative Yes 57.3 ± 11.9 56.9 ± 12.7 63 52   
Shalin P. Desai et al. (2012) cardiac surgery adult 189(91/98) postoperative Yes 62.5 ± 10.2 62.8 ± 9.5 89 80   
Federico Bilotta et al. (2007) Intracranial Aneurysm Clipping adult 78(40/38) Intra + post operative Yes 53.0 ± 16.0 52.0 ± 15.0 30 32   
Michael SD Agus et al. (2012) cardiac surgery birth to 36 months 980(490/490) postoperative Yes 4.3(1.8–9.7) months 4.9(2.3–10.8) months 51 56   
Harold L et al. (2011) cardiac surgery adult 82(40/42) Intra + post operative Yes 63 ± 9 65 ± 9 65 76   
First author History of diabetes (%) Baseline blood glucose (mean ± SD, mg/dL) Target blood glucose(mean ± SD, mg/dL) Trigger blood glucose(mean ± SD, mg/dL) Postoperatively maintain blood glucose(mean ± SD, mg/dl) Glucocorti-coids used postoperative follow-up Jadad Score
  TGC CGC TGC CGC TGC CGC TGC CGC TGC CGC    
Van Den et al. (2001) 13 13    80–110 180–200 110 215 103 ± 19 153 ± 33 No in-hospital 6
Salah M et al. (2013) 100 100    80–110 110–180 110 180    No 6 months 2
Konstantinos et al. (2013) 26 31    120–160 161–200 160 200 153.9 ± 13.9 173.9 ± 17.4 No 30 days or in-hospital 1
Amisha et al. (2017) 28 32      140 180 146.4 ± 16.4 178.8 ± 24.0 Yes 1 year 4
Rehong Zheng et al. (2010) 0 0 78.4 ± 3.8 77.5 ± 2.6 70–110   110     No   2
Raquel Pei Chen Chan et al. (2009)    113.4 ± 42.5 138 ± 75 80–130 160–200 130 200 126.7 ± 10.8 168.2 ± 28.3 No 30 days 3
Shou-gen Cao et al. (2011) 0 0 99.0 ± 14.4 95 ± 13 80–110 <  200 110 200 94.5 ± 15.3 184.0 ± 16.7 No 28 days 2
Shou-gen Cao et al. (2011) 100 100 122.4 ± 10.8 126 ± 13 80–110 180–215 110 215 99 ± 14.4 178.2 ± 18 No 28 days 1
Takehiro et al. (2014) 24 26    80–110 140–180 110 180    No 1 day 2
Ehab A. Wahby et al. (2016) 100 100 164.1 ± 12.1 167 ± 17 110–149 150–180      No weaned from mechanical ventilation 2
Federico Bilotta et al. (2009) 10 10 179 ± 32 181 ± 29 80–110 180–215 110 215 92.3 ± 2.5 143.3 ± 20.3 Yes 6 months 6
Shalin P. Desai et al. (2012) 41 45    90–120 121–180      No 30 days 1
Federico Bilotta et al. (2007) 10 11    80–120 80–220      Yes 6 months 5
Michael SD Agus et al. (2012) 0 0    80–110   110   112(104–120) 121(109–136) Yes 30 days 6
Harold L et al. (2011) 100 100 161 ± 50 151 ± 35 80–120 120–180 120 180 103 ± 17 135 ± 12 No 30 days 1
  1. TGC tight glycemic control, CGC conventional glycemic control