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Table 3 Association between cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome

From: Metabolic syndrome and its predictors in an urban population in Kenya: A cross sectional study

Variable Categories Number Metabolic syndrome status Univariate bMultivariate
    Present-No. (%) Absent-No. (%) p-value Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Gender Malea 255 64 (25.1%) 191 (74.9%)     
  Female 273 71 (26.0%) 202 (74.0%) 0.811 1.05 (0.71–1.55) 0.523 1.20 (0.68–2.13)
Age (years) 18-29a 134 6 (4.5%) 128 (95.5%)     
  30–39 136 23 (16.9%) 113 (83.1%) 0.002 4.34 (1.71–11.04) 0.051 2.64 (1.00–6.99)
  40–49 131 45 (34.4%) 86 (65.6%) 0.000 11.16 (4.56–27.31) 0.000 6.06 (2.35–15.60)
  50–65 127 61 (48.0%) 66 (52.0%) 0.000 19.72 (8.10–48.00) 0.000 11.74 (4.61–29.88)
BMI (kg/m2) <25.00a 242 19 (7.9%) 223 (92.1%)     
  25.00–29.99 198 76 (38.4%) 122 (61.6%) 0.000 7.31 (4.22–12.66) 0.000 5.08 (2.80–9.22)
  30.00–39.99 88 40 (45.5%) 48 (54.5%) 0.000 9.78 (5.22–18.34) 0.000 5.23 (2.57–10.66)
WC (cm) <94 (M) OR <80 (F)a 234 4 (1.7%) 230 (98.3%)     
  ≥94 (M) OR ≥80 (F) 294 131 (44.6%) 163 (55.4%) 0.000 46.21 (16.75–127.50)   
TGs (mmol/L) <1.7a 437 63 (14.4%) 374 (85.6%)     
  ≥1.7 91 72 (79.1%) 19 (20.9%) 0.000 22.50 (12.70–39.85)   
HDL-C (mmol/L) ≥1(M) OR ≥1.3 (F)a 304 38 (12.5%) 266 (87.5%)     
  <1(M) OR <1.3 (F) 224 97 (43.3%) 127 (56.7%) 0.000 5.35 (3.48–8.22)   
BP (mmHg) SBP < 130 OR DBP < 85a 287 21 (7.3%) 266 (92.7%)     
  SBP ≥ 130 OR DBP ≥ 85 241 114 (47.3%) 127 (52.7%) 0.000 11.37 (6.82–18.96)   
FPG (mmol/L) <5.6a 445 65 (14.6%) 380 (85.4%)     
  ≥5.6 83 70 (84.3%) 13 (15.7%) 0.000 31.48 (16.47–60.16)   
hsCRP (mg/L) <1.3a 262 44 (16.8%) 218 (83.2%)     
  ≥1.3 266 91 (34.2%) 175 (65.8%) 0.000 2.58 (1.71–3.89) 0.620 1.14 (0.686–1.880)
GGT (IU/L) <25a 263 45 (17.1%) 218 (82.9%)     
  ≥25 265 90 (34.0%) 175 (66.0%) 0.000 2.491 (1.654–3.752) 0.003 2.173 (1.295–3.648)
UA (mmol/L) <0.31a 252 47 (18.7%) 205 (18.3%)     
  ≥0.31 276 88 (31.9%) 188 (68.1%) 0.000 2.042 (1.361–3.063) 0.000 2.042 (1.361–3.063)
  1. Abbreviations BMI Body Mass Index, BP Blood pressure, CI Confidence interval, CVD Cardiovascular disease, DBP Diastolic BP, F Female, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, GGT Gamma-glutamyl transferase, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs CRP highly sensitive C-reactive protein, M Male, SBP Systolic BP, TGs Triglycerides, UA uric acid, WC Waist circumference
  2. aIndicates reference category,
  3. bComponents of MetS excluded in the multivariate analysis