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Table 3 Adjusted regression coefficients of calf circumference with metabolic parameters

From: Association of calf circumference with insulin resistance and non-alcohol fatty liver disease: the REACTION study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  B (SEM) P B (SEM) P B (SEM) P B (SEM) P
All (n = 8850)
 ALT 0.03 (0.003) <0.0001 0.03 (0.003) <0.0001 0.03 (0.003) <0.0001 0.02 (0.003) <0.0001
 AST 0.01 (0.003) <0.0001 0.01 (0.003) <0.0001 0.01 (0.003) <0.0001 0.01 (0.003) 0.003
 GGT 0.001 (0.002) <0.0001 0.001 (0.002) <0.0001 0.001 (0.002) 0.001 0.001 (0.002) 0. 017
 Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 0.02 (0.02) 0.252 0.01 (0.02) 0.671 -0.03 (0.02) 0.139 -0.03 (0.02) 0.059
 2-h glucose (mmol/l) 0.04 (0.009) <0.0001 0.03 (0.009) <0.008 0.02 (0.009) 0.011 0.01 (0.009) 0.536
 A1C (%) 0.15 (0.034) <0.0001 0.11 (0.036) 0.001 0.11 (0.036) 0.002 0.05 (0.035) 0.122
aFasting insulin (μU/ml) 0.06 (0.004) <0.0001 0.06 (0.004) <0.0001 0.04 (0.005) <0.0001 0.03 (0.005) <0.0001
bHOMA-IR 0.16 (0.013) <0.0001 0.17 (0.015) <0.0001 0.11 (0.015) <0.0001 0.08 (0.014) <0.0001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 0.03 (0.033) 0.445 0.01 (0.036) 0.850 0.06 (0.035) 0.092 0.08 (0.033) 0.017
 LDL-c (mmol/l) 0.05 (0.044) 0.217 0.09 (0.048) 0.066 0.04 (0.046) 0.608 0.01 (0.044) 0.937
 HDL-C (mmol/l) -1.54 (0.11) <0.0001 -1.45 (0.11) <0.0001 -0.99 (0.11) <0.0001 -0.78 (0.11) <0.0001
 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.25 (0.025) <0.0001 0.24 (0.027) <0.0001 0.17 (0.026) <0.0001 0.13 (0.026) <0.0001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 0.01 (0.002) <0.0001 0.01 (0.002) <0.0001 0.02 (0.002) <0.0001 0.01 (0.002) 0.0001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 0.02 (0.003) <0.0001 0.01 (0.004) 0.083 0.01 (0.004) 0.028 0.01 (0.004) 0.005
Obesity status
 BMI < 24 kg/m2 (n = 4033)
  Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 0.03 (0.005) <0.0001 0.03 (0.006) <0.0001 0.01 (0.006) 0.401 - -
  HOMA-IR 0.07 (0.016) <0.0001 0.08 (0.02) <0.0001 0.01 (0.019) 0.479 - -
BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (n = 4817)
 Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 0.08 (0.007) <0.0001 0.07 (0.007) <0.0001 0.05 (0.007) <0.0001 - -
 HOMA-IR 0.22 (0.019) <0.0001 0.19 (0.019) <0.0001 0.14 (0.019) <0.0001 - -
  1. Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were log-transformed before analysis. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex (not for sex-stratified analysis). Model 2: further adjusted for physical activity (low, moderate, or high), smoking (yes/no), family history of diabetes (yes/no), self-reported CHD (yes/no), stroke (yes/no), and hypertension (yes/no) was included in the model. Model 3: further adjusted for waist circumference and inflammatory factors (CRP and IL-6, continuous variables). Model 4: further adjusted for BMI (not for obesity status-stratified analysis). a17 participants were excluded with a missing value of fasting insulin, P for interaction between calf circumference and obesity status <0.001. b21 participants were excluded with a missing value of HOMA-IR; P for interaction between calf circumference and obesity status < 0.001