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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to calf circumference quartiles

From: Association of calf circumference with insulin resistance and non-alcohol fatty liver disease: the REACTION study

Quartiles of calf circumference
  Q1: ≤32.9 cm Q2: 33-35 cm Q3: 35.1-36.9 cm Q4: ≥37 cm P value
n 2212 2213 2212 2213  
Male 513 (23.2) 620 (28.0) 748 (33.8) 954 (43.1) <0.0001
Age (years) 56.5 ± 7.9 55.9 ± 7.9 56.1 ± 7.9 55.7 ± 8.0 0.003
Smoking, yes 316 (14.3) 361 (16.3) 389 (17.6) 458 (20.7) <0.0001
Physical activity      0.45
Low 1588 (71.8) 1611 (72.8) 1568 (70.9) 1587 (71.7)  
Moderate 453 (20.5) 427 (19.3) 471 (21.3) 436 (19.7)  
High 171 (7.7) 175 (7.9) 173 (7.8) 90 (8.6)  
Hypertensiona 918 (41.5) 991 (44.8) 1029 (46.5) 1199 (54.2) <0.0001
Self-reported CHDb 137 (6.2) 181 (8.2) 310 (14.0) 361 (16.3) <0.0001
Self-reported strokec 62 (2.8) 82 (3.7) 102 (4.6) 175 (7.9) <0.0001
Metabolic syndrome 911 (41.2) 1087 (49.1) 1259 (56.9) 1542 (69.7) <0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.8 ± 3.2 23.9 ± 2.9 24.9 ± 2.9 26.9 ± 7.6 <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 79.1 ± 11.8 82.0 ± 13.7 85.0 ± 10.8 89.8 ± 11.5 <0.0001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 6.25 ± 1.84 6.25 ± 1.70 6.28 ± 1.57 6.35 ± 1.67 1.12
2-h glucose (mmol/l) 8.57 ± 4.17 8.55 ± 3.83 8.71 ± 3.81 9.03 ± 3.82 <0.0001
A1C (%) 5.9 ± 1.1 5.9 ± 1.0 6.0 ± 0.9 6.1 ± 1.0 <0.0001
Fasting insulin (μU/ml)d 5.5 (4.0-7.6) 6.4 (4.6-8.6) 6.8 (5.0-9.4) 7.9 (5.7-10.9) <0.0001
HOMA-IRe 1.51 (1.13-2.22) 1.72 (1.26-2.48) 1.85 (1.34-2.71) 2.26 (1.55-3.20) <0.0001
ALT (U/L) 15.1 ± 11.0 16.2 ± 12.2 17.5 ± 14.0 19.6 ± 14.9 <0.0001
AST (U/L) 20.1 ± 9.3 20.4 ± 9.7 20.9 ± 12.4 21.3 ± 10.6 <0.0001
γ-GT (U/L) 25.4 ± 39.1 28.1 ± 34.7 30.2 ± 44.2 33.6 ± 35.8 <0.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.21 (0.88-1.80) 1.31 (0.94-1.94) 1.38 (0.97-2.05) 1.52 (1.08-2.27) <0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.31 ± 0.34 1.24 ± 0.31 1.21 ± 0.31 1.16 ± 0.28 <0.0001
CRP (μg/ml) 5.13 ± 6.74 4.82 ± 6.69 4.75 ± 5.59 5.31 ± 6.42 0.53
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.02 (0.63–1.72) 1.04 (0.70-1.69) 1.01 (0.61-1.49) 1.08 (0.69-1.75) 0.14
  1. Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range). aBlood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, or current use of anti-hypertensive medications. b65 participants were excluded with a missing value for self-reported CHD. c32 participants were excluded with a missing value for self-reported stroke. d17 participants were excluded with a missing value of fasting insulin. e21 participants were excluded with a missing value of HOMA-IR