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Table 3 Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) of socio-demographic and clinical predictors with the presence of complications and poor glycemic control

From: Age differences in diabetes-related complications and glycemic control

Characteristics Poor Glycemic Control Presence of Complications
OR1 (95% CI) OR2 (95% CI) OR3 (95% CI) OR1 (95% CI) OR2 (95% CI) OR3 (95% CI)
Age group
  ≤ 49 Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
 50–59 0.62 (0.39–0.98) 0.57 (0.35–0.94) 0.49 (0.28–0.86) 1.63 (1.10–2.42) 1.53 (1.00–2.33) 1.13 (0.67–1.90)
  ≥ 60 0.72 (0.44–1.15) 0.51 (0.30–0.87) 0.44 (0.24–0.80) 2.23 (1.48– 3.37) 2.24 (1.41–3.54) 1.74 (1.00–3.02)
P value 0.119 0.039 0.020 0.001 0.003 0.076
Sex
 Male Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
 Female 0.93 (0.65– 1.34) 1.25 (0.82–1.92) 0.73 (0.45–1.18) 1.52 (1.09–2.11) 1.57 (1.08–2.28) 1.15 (0.73 –1.82)
P value 0.699 0.304 0.198 0.013 0.019 0.560
Education
 Illiterate 1.32 (0.85 –2.04) 1.07 (0.63 –1.82) 1.20 (0.67 –2.17) 1.79 (1.22 –2.63) 1.39 (0.88–2.20) 1.96 (1.12–3.45)
 Primary school 0.68 (0.44 – 1.06) 0.64 (0.39– 1.03) 0.75 (0.44–1.26) 1.60 (1.07 –2.40) 1.58 (1.03–2.42) 1.91 (1.14 –3.20)
 Secondary school & higher Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
P value 0.003 0.037 0.152 0.01 0.114 0.027
Income
 Low <1000,000 Tomans 2.72 (1.90–3.89) 2.56 (1.75–3.76) 2.56 (1.68–3.90) 1.05 (0.75–1.46) 1.01 (0.76–1.44) 1.04 (0.68–1.60)
 Acceptable Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
P value <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.775 0.976 0.860
Duration of disease
  ≤ 3 years Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
 4–7 0.68 (0.41–1.13) 0.65 (0.37–1.13) 0.88 (0.48–1.63) 1.91 (1.17–3.13) 1.99 (1.16–3.42) 2.98 (1.54–5.76)
  > 7 years 1.34 (0.85–2.10) 1.49 (0.91–2.45) 1.55 (0.90–2.65) 4.23 (2.75–6.51) 4.55 (2.82–7.33) 7.25 (4.00–13.12)
P value 0.004 0.001 0.043 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
BMI
  < 25 Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
 25–29.9 1.30 (0.80–2.11) 1.28 (0.75–2.16) 1.92 (0.85–4.36) 1.19 (0.77–1.84) 1.20 (0.75–1.90) 1.42 (0.83–2.42)
  ≥ 30 0.96 (0.59–1.54) 089 (0.52–1.52) 1.05 (0.45–2.45) 1.60 (1.04–2.47) 1.42 (0.89–2.27) 1.66 (0.97–2.84)
P value 0.274 0.246 0.118 0.067 0.326 0.181
Total Cholesterol
Desirable Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
  ≥ 240 5.90 (2/07 –16.84) 5.95 (1.76–20.14) 4.54 (1.29 –15.94) 0.84 (0.45–1/56) 0.93 (0.45–1.90) 1.30 (0.52–3.22)
P value 0.001 0.004 0.018 0.573 0.840 0.887
Hypertension
Controlled Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group Ref group
 Uncontrolled 1.71 (1.22–2.40) 1.57 (1.09–2.26) 1.49 (1.00–2.22) 0.99 (0.73–1.35) 1.02 (0.73–1.41) 0.83 (0.56–1.23)
P value 0.002 0.016 0.052 0.963 0.929 0.354
  1. OR1: Crude. OR2: Adjusted for age, gender, education and income. OR3: Adjusted for age, gender, education, income, disease duration, cholesterol, BMI, HTN
  2. OR1: Crude. OR2: Adjusted for age, gender, education and income. OR3: Adjusted for age, gender, education, income, duration of disease, Cholesterol, BMI, HTN, and FBS