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Table 3 Studies in Burnout syndrome and healthy subjects (N = 33): Methods of assessment and respective results

From: Adrenal fatigue does not exist: a systematic review

Procedure Number of studies (% of total) Not different (%) Decreased (%) Increased (%)
DAC 17 (51.5 %) 10 (58.8 %) 4 (23.5 %) 3 (17.7 %)
CAR 16 (48.5 %) 9 (56.2 %) 6 (37.5 %) 1 (6.3 %)
MSC 12 (36.4 %) 8 (66.7 %) 1 (8.3 %) 3 (25.0 %)
SCR 12 (36.4 %) 7 (58.3 %) 3 (25.0 %) 2 (16.7 %)
NSC 10 (30.3 %) 7 (70.0 %) 2 (20.0 %) 1 (10.0 %)
DST 7 (21.2 %) 5 (71.4 %) 2 (28.6 %) -
MST 5 (15.2 %) 4 (80.0 %) 1 (20.0 %) -
DHEA-S 5 (15.2 %) 3 (60.0 %) 2 (40.0 %) -
ACTH 4 (10.1 %) 3 (75.0 %) - 1 (25.0 %)
AUC 3 (9.1 %) 2 (66.7 %) 1 (33.3 %) -
ACTH MST 2 (6.1 %) 2 (100 %) - -
CST 2 (6.1 %) - 1 (50 %) 1 (50 %)
4 PM cortisol 1 1 - -
DST + CRH cortisol 1 1 - -
DST + CRH ACTH 1 1 - -
CAR 15 min 1 1 - -
CAR 60 min 1 1 - -
DHEA-S MST 1 - 1 -
UFC 1 - 1 -
OGTT cortisol 1 - - 1
Cortisol/ACTH ratio 1 - - 1
  1. Legends: (*): DAC direct awakening cortisol, CAR cortisol awakening response, MSC morning serum (& salivary) cortisol, SCR salivary cortisol rhythm, NSC night salivary cortisol, DST dexamethasone suppression test, MST mental stress test, DHEA-S dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone, AUC area under-the-curve (estimated cortisol release), CST cosyntropin stimulation test, CRH corticotropin releasing hormone, UFC 24 h-urinary free cortisol, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test