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Table 2 Assessed methods and results of all selected studies (N = 58)

From: Adrenal fatigue does not exist: a systematic review

Procedure (*) Number of studies (% of total) Not different (%) Decreased (%) Increased (%)
DAC 29 (50.0 %) 19 (65.5 %) 6 (20.7 %) 4 (13.8 %)
CAR 27 (46.6 %) 14 (51.9 %) 9 (33.3 %) 4 (14.8 %)
SCR 26 (44.8 %) 16 (61.5 %) 7 (26.9 %) 3 (11.5 %)
MSC 22 (37.9 %) 14 (63.6 %) 4 (18.2 %) 4 (18.2 %)
NSC 22 (37.9 %) 13 (59.1 %) 3 (13.6 %) 6 (27.3 %)
AUC 13 (22.4 %) 8 (61.5 %) 3 (23.1 %) 2 (15.4 %)
DST 9 (15.5 %) 6 (66.7 %) 3 (33.3 %) -
DHEA-S 6 (10.3 %) 4 (66.7 %) 2 (33.3 %) -
ACTH 6 (10.3 %) 5 (83.3 %) - 1 (16.7 %)
MST 5 (8.6 %) 4 (80.0 %) 1 (20.0 %) -
UFC 3 (5.2 %) 1 (33.3 %) 2 (66.7 %) -
CST 3 (5.2 %) - 2 (66.7 %) 1 (33.3 %)
MAUC 3 (5.2 %) - 2 (66.7 %) 1 (33.3 %)
CAR 60 min 2 (3.4 %) 2 (100 %) - -
ACTH MST 2 (3.4 %) 2 (100 %) - -
4 PM cortisol 1 1 - -
DST + CRH cortisol 1 1 - -
DST + CRH ACTH 1 1 - -
CAR 15 min 1 1 - -
TCM 1 1 - -
DHEA-S MST 1 - 1 -
CRST cortisol 1 - 1 -
CRST ACTH 1 - 1 -
OGTT cortisol 1 - - 1
Cortisol/ACTH ratio 1 - - 1
  1. Legends: (*): DAC direct awakening cortisol, CAR cortisol awakening response, SCR salivary cortisol rhythm, MSC morning serum (& salivary) cortisol, NSC night salivary cortisol, AUC area under-the-curve (Estimated Cortisol Release), DST dexamethasone suppression test, DHEA-S dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone, MST mental stress test, UFC 24 h-urinary free cortisol, CST cosyntropin stimulation test, MAUC morning area under-the-curve (morning estimated cortisol release), CRH corticotropin releasing hormone, TCM total urinary cortisol metabolites, CRST corticotropin releasing stimulation test (?), OGTT oral glucose tolerance test