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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics for twins and singletons where OGTT results were available

From: Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

  Twins N = 209 Singletons N = 182 RR or DIFF P
Demographics
 Male sex; % 97/209 (46 %) 86/182 (47 %) 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 0.87
 Age; years (T = 209, S = 181) 16.6 (7–34) 14.2 (7–32)   0.08
  Children (<16 years); % 93/209 (44.5 %) 99/181 (54.7 %) 0.81 (0.64–1.03) 0.09
  Adults (≥16 years): % 116/209 (55.5 %) 82/181 (45.3 %) 1.23 (0.98–1.54) 0.08
 Ethnicity; %
  Balanta 23/209 (11.0 %) 14/182 (7.7 %) 1.42 (0.70–2.90) 0.33
  Fula 14/209 (6.7 %) 21/182 (11.5 %) 0.58 (0.29–1.18) 0.13
  Pepel 67/209 (32.1 %) 71/182 (39.0 %) 0.82 (0.60–1.13) 0.23
  Mandinka 19/209 (9.1 %) 13/182 (7.1 %) 1.27 (0.59–2.75) 0.54
  Other 86/209 (41.1 %) 62/182 (34.1 %) 1.21 (0.90–1.62) 0.21
Clinical data
 Chronic disease; % 12/209 (5.7 %) 8/178 (4.5 %) 1.28 (0.54–3.03) 0.58
 Family history of DMd; % 15/183 (8.2 %) 8/176 (4.5 %) 1.80 (0.73–4.46) 0.16
 Tobacco smoking; %a 5/116 (4.3 %) 4/80 (5.0 %) 0.86 (0.21–3.48) 0.84
 Alcohol intake; %a 37/116 (31.9 %) 17/80 (21 %) 1.50 (0.89–2.53) 0.13
 MUACe; mm (T = 209, S = 181) 236 (38–354) 222 (140–342)   0.43
 BMI/BMI z-score
  BMI; kg/m2 (T = 119, S = 85)b 20.6 (3.14) 21.7 (3.52)   0.02
  BMI-z-score (T = 88, S = 96)c −1.32 (1.41) −1.09 (1.07)   0.23
 WHRf (T = 208, S = 180) 0.83 (0.42–1.00) 0.80 (0.35–1.38)   0.03
 BFg; % (T = 207, S = 179) 12.1 (2.3–32.7) 11.1 (1.8–30.2)   0.02
 Systolic BPh; mmHg (T = 201, S = 181) 104 (13) 107 (14) 3.5 (0.5–6.4) 0.02
 Diastolic BPi; mmHg (T = 201, S = 181) 62 (11) 68 (12) 5.8 (3.3–8.3) <0.001
 Hypertensionb 4/116 (3.5 %) 18/82 (22.0 %) 0.16 (0.05–0.45) <0.001
 Birth weight; g (T = 56, S = 46) 2410 (469) 3090 (397) 680 (500–860) <0.001
 Low birth weight (<2500 g); % 29/56 (52 %) 2/46 (4 %) 14.4 (3.6–57.3) <0.001
  1. Cells are n/N (%), mean (SD) or median (range). For continuous data, the total number of observations is listed as T for twins and S for singletons, as information was not complete for all variables
  2. aOnly adults were asked about smoking and alcohol habits
  3. bOnly for adults
  4. cOnly for young twins and singletons
  5. dDiabetes Mellitus
  6. eMiddle Upperarm Circumference
  7. fWaist-to-hip ratio
  8. gBody Fat Percentage
  9. hSystolic blood pressure
  10. iDiastolic blood pressure