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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants in the MAILES cohort by T2D status at 5 years follow-up, crude incidence and corresponding age-adjusted odds ratios

From: Predictive value of serum testosterone for type 2 diabetes risk assessment in men

  Raw data   With multiple imputation of missing data
  Incident T2D (n = 147) No T2D (n = 1508) P % with T2D Age-adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI)
Age (years)      
 35–44 20 377   5.0 1
 45–54 34 449   7.0 1.43 (0.80,2.52) a
 55–64 47 374   11.2 2.37 (1.38,4.08) a
 ≥65 46 308 <0.001 13.0 2.82 (1.63,4.86) a
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)    
Ethnicity/Country of birth      
 Asia, Middle East, North Africa, Southern Europe 15 119   11.1 0.83 (0.47,1.47)
 Other (North West Europe, Americas, Oceania/Australia) 132 1387 0.329 8.7 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 2 (0.1 %)    
Income (AUD)      
 Up to $12,000 15 72   17.1 2.89 (1.30,6.38)
 $12,001 – $20,000 23 148   13.7 2.13 (1.03,4.39)
 $20,001 – $30,000 24 193   11.5 1.82 (0.91,3.64)
 $30,001 – $40,000 16 181   8.8 1.52 (0.74,3.13)
 $40,001 – $50,000 13 188   6.5 1.16 (0.54,2.47)
 $50,001 – $60,000 15 181   7.6 1.41 (0.68,2.92)
 $60,001 – $80,000 18 225   8.0 1.54 (0.77,3.11)
 More than $80,000 16 294 0.003 5.2 1
 Missing 7 (4.8 %) 26 (1.7 %)    
Family history of diabetes      
 Yes 55 410   11.9 1.80 (1.25,2.58)
 No 91 1095 0.007 7.7 1
 Missing 1 (0.6 %) 3 (0.2 %)    
FPG (mean, mmol/L)      
 Mean (sd) 5.32 (0.71) 4.80 (0.60) <0.001b   
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 10 (0.7 %)    
HbA1c (mean, %)      
 Mean (sd) 5.87 (0.34) 5.49 (0.36) <0.001b   
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 8 (0.5 %)    
Pre-diabetes (FPG 5.6–6.9 mmol/L or HbA1c 5.7–6.4 %)      
 Yes 126 562   18.2 9.23 (5.72,14.90)
 No 21 936 <0.001 2.2 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 10 (0.7 %)    
Impaired fasting glucose (FPG 5.6–6.9 mmol/L)      
 Yes 59 142   28.7 5.63 (3.87,8.19)
 No 88 1356 <0.001 6.1 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 10 (0.7 %)    
Currently taking blood pressure medication      
 Yes 57 294   16.2 2.11 (1.43,3.11)
 No 90 1209 <0.001 6.9 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 5 (0.3 %)    
High blood pressure (≥140/90 mmHg)      
 Yes 88 629   12.2 1.77 (1.24,2.53)
 No 59 874 <0.001 6.3 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 5 (0.3 %)    
Triglycerides (mean, mmol/L)      
 Mean (sd) 1.99 (1.36) 1.70 (1.32) 0.013b   
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 7 (0.5 %)    
High triglycerides (>1.7 mmol/L)      
 Yes 68 505   11.8 1.79 (1.27,2.54)
 No 79 996 0.002 7.3 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 7 (0.5 %)    
HDL-C (mean, mmol/L)      
 Mean (sd) 1.20 (0.31) 1.27 (0.30) 0.011b   
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 7 (0.5 %)    
Low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L)      
 Yes 30 193   13.4 1.84 (1.19,2.84)
 No 117 1308 0.011 8.2 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 7 (0.5 %)    
Diagnosed cardiovascular disease      
 Yes 18 104   14.7 1.41 (0.81,2.44)
 No 129 1402 0.018 8.4 1
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 2 (0.1 %)    
Total testosterone (mean, nmol/L)      
 Mean (sd) 15.0 (5.9) 17.7 (5.9) <0.001 b   
 Missing 10 (6.8 %) 146 (9.7 %)    
Currently smoking      
 Yes 17 248   6.4 0.78 (0.46,1.32)
 No 128 1257 0.136 9.4 1
 Missing 2 (1.4 %) 3 (0.2 %)    
Physically inactivity (<540 METs)      
 <540 METs 77 781   9.2 1.14 (0.81,1.61)
 ≥540 METs 62 665 0.754 8.5 1
 missing 8 (5.4 %) 62 (4.1 %)    
Body mass index (kg/m2)      
 Healthy weight 18.50–24.99 19 341   5.3 1
 Overweight 25.00–29.99 69 768   8.2 1.57 (0.93,2.65)
 Obese ≥30.00 59 399 <0.001 12.9 2.65 (1.54,456)
 Missing 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)    
Waist circumference category      
 Low risk 65 925   6.5 1
 Medium risk 39 361   9.7 1.42 (0.93,2.15)
 High risk 42 215 <0.001 16.6 2.65 (1.74,4.02)
 Missing 1 (0.7 %) 7 (0.5 %)    
  1. Notes: FPG fasting plasma glucose, IFG impaired fasting glucose, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin %, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, METs metabolic equivalents of leisure-time physical activity in the past week; Waist circumference risk categories were classified using ethnic specific cut-off points for Asian and Aboriginal (low ≤90 cm, medium 90–100 cm, high >100 cm), and Other (low ≤102 cm, medium 102–110 cm, and high >110 cm); a not age-adjusted; b independent samples t-test