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Table 2 Baseline characteristics for patients receiving antidiabetic monotherapy. Characteristics include demographic characteristics; insurance coverage; period of first hospital admission; comorbidities; medical care received; and disease severity. In order to achieve balance between the cohorts in characteristic distributions, propensity scores were estimated and used as a covariate in the Cox proportional hazard regression following a statistical check to see whether balance was achieved

From: Sulfonylurea use and the risk of hospital readmission in patients with type 2 diabetes

Characteristic All Patients (Percent) SU Cohort (Percent) noSU Cohort (Percent) p-value a Adjusted p-value b
Total 8,705,468 3,217,089 5,488,379   
Mean Age (95 % CI) 63.4 (62.5–64.4) 68.3 (67.0–69.7) 60.5 (59.3–61.7) <0.0001 0.951
Male 3,738,700 (42.9) 1,514,251 (47.1) 2,224,449 (40.5) 0.093 0.985
Race      
 White 6,859,909 (78.8) 2,525,415 (78.5) 4,346,796 (79.2)   
 African American 1,305,820 (15.0) 466,478 (14.5) 856,187 (15.6) 0.784 0.912
 Other 539,739 (6.2) 225,196 (7.0) 285,396 (5.2)   
Region      
 Northeast 1,647,688 (18.9) 465,284 (14.5) 1,182,404 (21.5)   
 Midwest 2,007,585 (23.1) 777,258 (24.2) 1,230,327 (22.4) 0.115 0.994
 South 3,290,396 (37.8) 1,278,818 (39.8) 2,011,578 (36.7)   
 West 1,534,591 (17.6) 526,591 (16.4) 1,008,000 (18.4)   
Married 4,530,506 (52.0) 1,578,073 (49.1) 2,952,432 (53.8) 0.193 0.992
Insurance status      
 Public 3,410,507 (39.2) 1,455,344 (45.2) 1,955,164 (35.6)   
 Private 4,442,060 (51.0) 1,457,269 (45.3) 2,984,792 (54.4) 0.0881 0.998
 Other 223,194 (2.6) 136,278 (4.2) 86,916 (1.6)   
 Uninsured 629,707 (7.2) 168,199 (5.2) 461,508 (8.4)   
Period of first hospital admission      
 1999–2003 1,796,930 (20.6) 1,012,088 (31.5) 784,842 (14.3)   
 2004–2007 3,932,720 (45.2) 1,475,349 (45.9) 2,457,371 (44.8) <0.0001 0.937
 2008–2010 2,975,819 (34.2) 729,652 (22.7) 2,246,166 (40.9)   
Cardiovascular disease 5,272,543 (60.6) 1,695,922 (52.7) 3,576,621 (65.2) 0.0017 0.966
Renal disease 823,544 (9.5) 354,703 (11.0) 468,840 (8.52) 0.298 0.979
Eye disease 1,454,104 (16.7) 547,914 (17.7) 886,190 (16.2) 0.624 0.995
Mean number of HbA1c tests (95 % CI) 3.5 (2.4–4.7) 3.1 (1.4–4.92) 3.8 (2.3–5.2) 0.602 0.443
Perceived health status      
 Excellent/Very good 1,782,916 (20.5) 616,432 (19.2) 1,166,485 (21.3)   
 Good 2,674,290 (30.7) 792,801 (24.6) 1,881,489 (34.3) 0.012 0.973
 Fair/Poor 4,161,730 (47.8) 1,767,732 (55.0) 2,393,999 (43.6)   
Perceived mental health status      
 Excellent/Very good 3,830,005 (44.0) 1,219,758 (37.9) 2,610,246(48.2)   
 Good 2,678,886 (30.8) 998,646 (31.0) 1,680,241 (30.6) 0.017 0.919
 Fair/Poor 2,110,045 (24.2) 958,560 (29.8) 1,150,485 (21.0)   
Physical limitations 4,119,188 (47.3) 1,634,470 (50.8) 2,484,718 (45.3) 0.153 0.991
Difficulty in getting care 4,541,484 (52.2) 1,554,111 (48.3) 2,987,374 (54.4) 0.107 0.989
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. a p-value for the test of equality (t- or chi-squared) of percentage distributions between cohorts
  3. b p-value for the test of treatment effect on patient characteristic, controlling for patient propensity score