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Table 4 Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 before and after 5-day studies. Effects of vehicle at breakfast and effects of 0.63 μg/kg GLP-1 at breakfast on the day before and on the day after 5-day studies with GLP-1 or with vehicle in paired studies in eight volunteers with type 1 diabetes with no endogenous insulin secretion. Time-averaged incremental values (area under the curve divided by time) (AUC) for plasma glucose through three hours and for plasma pancreatic polypeptide from 0 to 30 min (HPP), mean ± SE, were higher for tests with vehicle at breakfast than for tests with GLP-1 at breakfast, ANOVA, repeated measures, P <.05. Mean AUC values for glucose and HPP did not differ for tests with GLP-1 at breakfast.

From: Glucagon-like peptide 1 improved glycemic control in type 1 diabetes

Test Glucose mmol/l HPP pmol/l
Vehicle at breakfast 5.3 ± 0.9 14 ± 3.0
5-day study with GLP-1:   
GLP-1 at breakfast before treatment 3.4 ± 0.6 -2.3 ± 5.4
GLP-1 at breakfast after treatment 2.5 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 4.9
5-day study with vehicle:   
GLP-1 at breakfast before treatment 3.5 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 3.1
GLP-1 at breakfast after treatment 2.0 ± 0.8 -1.6 ± 3.1