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Table 1 Criteria and the thresholds used for the definition of metabolically healthy obese individuals in each cohort study

From: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolically healthy obesity in Europe: a collaborative analysis of ten large cohort studies

  Strict criteria Less strict criteria
Blood pressure SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication
Elevated blood glucose fasting blood glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l or non-fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or use of blood glucose lowering medication or diagnosis of type 2 diabetes fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or non-fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.8 mmol/l or use of blood glucose lowering medication or diagnosis of type 2 diabetes
Decreased HDL-cholesterol < 1.03 mmol/l in men or < 1.30 mmol/l in women or medical treatment for low HDL < 1.03 mmol/l in men or < 1.30 mmol/l in women or medical treatment for low HDL
Elevated triglycerides* ≥ 1.70 mmol/l or medication for elevated triglycerides ≥ 1.70 mmol/l or medication for elevated triglycerides
Diagnosis for CVD Yes Yes
  1. Abbreviations: CVD cardiovascular disease, DBP diastolic blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure.
  2. The presence of ≥ 2 abnormal clinical measures (blood pressure, blood glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) according to the strict criteria was considered diagnostic for MetS.
  3. Metabolically healthy obesity is defined as having BMI ≥ 30, none of the following criteria of the metabolic syndrome [15, 42], and no cardiovascular disease.
  4. *In case of non-fasting measurements, the cut-off value was set at 2.10 mmol/l.