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Table 2 Risk factors and mean UPMS score (n =10,566)

From: A pattern of unspecific somatic symptoms as long-term premonitory signs of type 2 diabetes: findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA cohort study, 1984-2009

Risk factor Category UPMS score P value
   Mean (standard deviation)  
All   7.76 (4.31) -
Educational level Low 8.24 (4.40) < 0.001
  High 6.59 (3.83)  
Parental history of diabetes No 7.48 (4.20) < 0.001
  Yes 8.13 (4.35)  
  Unknown 8.38 (4.54)  
Current smoker No 7.91 (4.28) < 0.001
  Yes 7.37 (4.36)  
Alcohol consumption No 8.46 (4.58) < 0.001
  Moderate 7.52 (4.15)  
  High 7.44 (4.20)  
Physical inactivity No 6.99 (4.05) < 0.001
  Yes 8.35 (4.40)  
Actual hypertension No 7.59 (4.19) < 0.001
  Yes 8.07 (4.49)  
TC/HDL-C < 5 7.81 (4.24) 0.14
  ≥5 7.67 (4.47)  
BMI (kg/m2) < 25 7.43 (4.13) < 0.001
  25- <30 7.80 (4.34)  
  ≥30 8.45 (4.55)  
  1. BMI: Body mass index; TC/HDL-C: Total cholesterol/High density lipoprotein cholesterol; UPMS: Unspecific premonitory symptom.