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Table 1 Age, sex and risk factor distribution at baseline in newly diagnosed T2DM cases and non-cases (n = 10,566)

From: A pattern of unspecific somatic symptoms as long-term premonitory signs of type 2 diabetes: findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA cohort study, 1984-2009

  T2DM cases T2DM non-cases P value
  (n = 974) (n = 9,592)  
Age (in years)* 52.9 (10.8) 46.1 (13.2) < 0.001
Male sex 61.5 50.6 < 0.001
Low educational level 80.9 70.1 < 0.001
Parental history of diabetes    < 0.001
 No 48.1 64.4  
 Yes 29.5 18.1  
Unknown 22.5 17.6  
Current smoker 29.8 27.3 0.10
Alcohol consumption    0.52
 No 28.5 28.0  
 Moderate 43.4 45.3  
 High 28.0 26.7  
Physical inactivity 66.0 55.8 < 0.001
Actual hypertension 59.8 33.5 < 0.001
TC/HDL-C* 5.49 (2.16) 4.39 (1.77) < 0.001
BMI (in kg/m2)* 29.7 (4.5) 26.1 (3.9) < 0.001
UPMS score* 8.52 (4.62) 7.69 (4.27) < 0.001
  1. *mean (standard deviation).
  2. BMI: Body mass index; TC/HDL-C: Total cholesterol/High density lipoprotein cholesterol; UPMS: Unspecific premonitory symptom.