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Table 4 Logistic regression for middle and highest tertile serum concentrations compared to the lowest tertile for brominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and perfluorinated compounds

From: Exploring the potential association between brominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates, and bisphenol a in polycystic ovary syndrome: a case–control study

    Unadjusted concentrations     Lipid-adjusted concentrations
Agent N Case N Control Tertile OR 95% C.I. p Adj ORa Exact 95% C.I Exact p N Case N Control OR 95% C.I. p Adj ORa Exact 95% C.I Exact p
Brominated Diphenyl Ethers                  
2,4,4′-tribromodiphenyl ether (PBDE28) 15 19 Middle 0.79 0.30-2.05   0.54 0.14-1.90   19 16 1.32 0.51-3.41   1.04 0.29-3.68  
20 14 Highest 1.43 0.55-3.72   0.95 0.27-3.31   15 18 1.00 0.38-2.68   0.69 0.17-2.64  
2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE47) 17 17 Middle 1.00 0.39-2.59   0.67 0.18-2.30   16 18 0.79 0.30-2.05   0.65 0.17-2.38  
18 16 Highest 1.12 0.43-2.91   0.70 0.21-2.76   18 16 1.00 0.39-2.59   0.73 0.20-2.60  
2,2′,4.4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE99) 18 15 Middle 1.27 0.49-3.29   1.04 0.30-3.52   17 17 0.89 0.34-2.30   1.21 0.36-4.26  
17 17 Highest 1.06 0.41-2.72   0.70 0.20-2.37   17 17 0.89 0.34-2.30   0.63 0.18-2.16  
2,2′,4,4′,6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE100) 18 16 Middle 1.00 0.39-2.59   0.68 0.18-2.38   20 14 1.43 0.55-3.72   0.90 0.25-3.14  
16 18 Highest 0.79 0.31-2.05   0.65 0.17-2.40   15 19 0.79 0.30-2.05   0.66 0.17-2.50  
2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl ether (BB153) 23 13 Middle 1.24 0.47-3.25   1.26 0.35-4.60   17 12 0.85 0.32-2.26   1.10 0.30-4.14  
9 23 Highest 0.27 0.10-0.77 0.01 0.31 0.04-2.15   10 23 0.26 0.10-0.69 0.01 0.49 0.08-2.90  
2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE153) 19 16 Middle 1.06 0.41-2.72   1.29 0.39-4.45   17 17 0.70 0.27-1.83   1.03 0.30-3.65  
15 18 Highest 0.74 0.28-1.94   1.11 0.31-4.04   15 19 0.55 0.21-1.44   1.01 0.27-3.94  
Polychlorinated Biphenyls                  
2,2′,4,4′,5-pentaCB (PCB99) 18 16 Middle 0.70 0.27-1.83   2.12 0.55-9.07   16 22 0.31 0.11-0.86 0.024 0.94 0.23-3.41  
  13 21 Highest 0.38 0.14-1.02 0.055 1.10 0.27-4.65   15 19 0.34 0.12-0.95 0.040 0.86 0.23-3.84  
2,3,3′,4,4′-pentaCB (PCB105) 19 15 Middle 1.00 0.38-2.60   1.19 0.34-4.26   16 16 0.86 0.34-2.19   0.92 0.27-3.14  
  14 20 Highest 0.55 0.21-1.45   0.79 0.22-2.83   15 16 0.80 0.31-2.07   1.16 0.34-4.09  
2,3′,4,4′,5-pentaCB (PCB118) 17 17 Middle 0.89 0.34-2.30   1.68 0.46-6.57   20 14 1.27 0.49-3.31   2.06 0.59-7.89  
  17 17 Highest 0.89 0.34-2.30   2.18 0.56-9.22   14 20 0.62 0.24-1.62   1.21 0.31-4.88  
2,2′,3,4′,5,5′-hexaCB (PCB146) 17 13 Middle 1.12 0.43-2.92   4.01 0.98-19.44 0.055 15 12 0.98 0.37-2.60   3.33 0.81-15.86  
14 19 Highest 0.63 0.25-1.61   2.91 0.68-14.15   14 20 0.55 0.22-1.38   2.40 0.60-10.83  
2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexaCB (PCB153) 22 12 Middle 1.83 0.69-4.85   5.79 1.41-28.11 0.011 17 17 0.48 0.18-1.28   1.88 0.47-8.21  
13 21 Highest 0.62 0.24-1.62   4.20 0.81-24.95   12 22 0.26 0.09-0.71 0.009 1.42 0.27-7.89  
2,3,3′,4,4′,5-hexaCB (PCB156) 21 14 Middle 1.33 0.51-3.46   3.40 0.91-14.21   20 14 1.05 0.40-2.78   2.25 0.62-8.79  
  13 20 Highest 0.58 0.22-1.52   4.50 0.76-31.05   13 22 0.44 0.16-1.15   2.58 0.45-16.22  
2,2′,3,4,4′,5′-hexaCB and 2,3,3′,4,4′,6-hexaCB (PCB138-158) 20 14 Middle 1.13 0.43-2.95   2.73 0.72-11.33   18 18 0.60 0.23-1.58   1.57 0.43-6.11  
13 21 Highest 0.49 0.18-1.29   2.48 0.50-13.49   14 20 0.42 0.16-1.13   1.70 0.39-7.90  
2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5-heptaCB (PCB170) 24 10 Middle 2.70 0.99-7.33 0.051 6.88 1.71-32.96 0.003 20 13 1.30 0.49-3.40   5.13 1.24-25.16 0.020
12 22 Highest 0.61 0.23-1.62   4.04 0.64-29.31   13 21 0.52 0.20-1.36   4.97 0.78-37.25  
2,2′,3,4,4′,5,5′-heptaCB (PCB180) 11 23 Middle 2.35 0.88-6.30   6.42 1.60-30.52 0.005 19 14 1.02 0.39-2.66   4.48 1.08-21.73 0.037
21 13 Highest 0.70 0.27-1.83   5.21 0.88-36.37   13 21 0.46 0.18-1.22   5.93 0.88-48.77 0.073
2,2′,3,4,4′,5′,6-heptaCB (PCB183) 22 12 Middle 1.83 0.69-4.85   4.21 1.11-18.26 0.017 21 12 1.65 0.63-4.36   3.49 0.94-14.53 0.065
13 21 Highest 0.62 0.24-1.62   3.55 0.67-21.68   13 21 0.59 0.22-1.52   2.94 0.59-16.46  
2,2′,3,4′,5,5′,6-heptaCB (PCB187) 20 14 Middle 1.27 0.49-3.31   2.99 1.35-18.96   23 17 1.11 0.43-2.87   3.07 0.81-13.00  
14 20 Highest 0.62 0.24-1.62   3.26 0.80-12.47   12 19 0.52 0.19-1.43   3.68 0.71-21.89  
2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-octaCB (PCB194) 17 11 Middle 1.26 0.47-3.37   3.64 0.93-16.27 0.060 19 10 1.55 0.58-4.17   3.85 1.00-17.04 0.051
13 21 Highest 0.51 0.20-1.29   3.45 0.61-22.50   11 22 0.41 0.16-1.06   2.86 0.48-19.26  
2,2′,3,3′,4,5,6,6′-octaCB (PCB199) 20 13 Middle 1.23 0.47-3.21   3.04 0.83-12.59   19 11 1.43 0.54-3.72   3.89 1.00-16.80 0.054
12 21 Highest 0.46 0.17-1.20   2.04 0.43-10.71   11 21 0.43 0.16-1.12   2.31 0.48-12.61  
2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5′,6-octaCB and 2,2′,3, 4, 4′,5,5′,6-octaCB (PCB196-203) 23 11 Middle 2.09 0.78-5.59   7.50 1.72-40.29 0.004 22 13 1.41 0.53-3.72   4.19 1.07-19.09 0.038
12 22 Highest 0.54 0.21-1.44   4.67 0.78-33.23   12 22 0.45 0.17-1.21   3.28 0.56-21.38  
Persistent Pesticides                  
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 18 15 Middle 1.27 0.49-3.30   3.55 0.90-16.35   15 17 0.63 0.24-1.64   1.06 0.29-3.99  
  17 17 Highest 1.06 0.41-2.72   2.46 0.64-10.29   16 18 0.63 0.25-1.63   1.58 0.43-6.38  
β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (B-HCCH) 20 15 Middle 2.05 0.78-5.39   3.87 0.96-18.35   22 11 2.02 0.75-5.42   3.79 0.98-17.20  
16 18 Highest 1.13 0.43-2.93   2.71 0.72-11.36   13 20 0.74 0.29-1.92   2.13 0.57-8.63  
Oxychlordane 18 16 Middle 0.89 0.34-2.31   2.16 0.59-8.60   19 14 1.00 0.37-2.65   3.21 0.81-14.64  
  15 19 Highest 0.62 0.24-1.62   2.61 0.55-14.25   14 20 0.52 0.20-1.36   2.21 0.47-11.56  
Trans-Nonachlor 18 16 Middle 1.00 0.39-2.59   2.19 0.60-8.67   18 16 0.89 0.34-2.31   2.17 0.58-8.80  
  16 18 Highest 0.79 0.30-2.05   3.16 0.64-18.15   15 19 0.62 0.24-1.62   1.95 0.43-9.67  
2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 21 13 Middle 1.61 0.62-4.24   2.35 0.67-8.74   21 13 1.44 0.55-3.77   2.93 0.78-12.30  
1–dichloroethene (DDE) 14 20 Highest 0.70 0.27-1.82   1.15 0.31-4.37   13 21 0.55 0.21-1.44   1.14 0.30-4.44  
2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl-1, 1, 13 20 Middle 0.52 0.20-1.36   0.45 0.12-1.62   15 18 0.62 0.24-1.63   0.79 0.22-2.79  
1-trichloroethane (DDT) 19 14 Highest 1.09 0.42-2.82   1.29 0.35-4.84   17 16 0.80 0.31-2.07   1.02 0.30-3.52  
Perfluorinated compounds                  
PFOA 15 18 Middle 2.32 0.83-6.45   1.65 0.45-6.14          
Perfluorooctanoate 28 7 Highest 11.11 3.61-34.24 0.000 6.93 1.79-29.92 0.003         
PFOS 19 13 Middle 3.80 1.38-10.48 0.010 3.43 0.95-13.31 0.062         
Perfluorooctane sulfonate 23 11 Highest 5.44 1.95-15.13 0.001 5.79 1.58-24.12 0.005         
PFHxS 16 12 Middle 2.00 0.75-5.33   0.85 0.20-3.31          
Perfluorohexane sulfonate 20 14 Highest 2.14 0.84-5.44   1.20 0.35-4.07          
PFNA 17 13 Middle 2.15 0.80-5.73   1.13 0.37-4.49          
Perfluorononanoate 21 14 Highest 2.46 0.95-6.36   2.25 0.67-8.00          
  1. aControlling for age, BMI, and race.
  2. Bold font highlights, for any individual agent, middle or highest tertile serum concentrations that are significantly different than the lowest tertile concentration.