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Table 2 Meta-regression of the effect of intervention´s characteristics on pooled glycated hemoglobin (N = 20)

From: Characteristics and effectiveness of diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

  Number interventionsa SMD 95% CI Residual I2
Country     0.00%
  US 18 -0.28** -0.47; -0.09  
  Netherland 1 -0.82 -1.85; 0.21  
  UK 1 -0.06 -0.88; 0.77  
Year     1.74%
  Prior 2001 2 -0.51 -1.29; 0.26  
  2001-2006 6 0.32 -0.52; 1.15  
  2007-2012 12 0.18 -0.60; 0.97  
Setting     0.00%
   Primary Care 9 -0.23 -0.58; 0.11  
   Community center 6 -0.03 -0.48; 0.41  
   Other 5 -0.24 -0.74; 0.26  
Mean HbA1c at baseline in intervention group     0.08%
   HbA1c < 9% 10 -0.39** -0.96; 0.17  
   HbA1c ≥ 9% 10 0.06 -0.32; 0.43  
Target population     3.33%
  Ethnic minority 10 -0.30 -0.58; -0.04  
  Rural ethnic minority 3 0.31 -0.41; 1.03  
  Women from ethnic minority group 2 -0.23 -1.04; 0.58  
  Other (elderly or low income or low literacy) 5 -0.05 -0.47; 0.36  
Ethnic minority group     0.00%
   African-American 7 -0.10 -0.48; 0.28  
   Latinos 7 -0.31 -0.80; 0.17  
   Asiatic 2 -0.54 -1.28; 0.20  
   Multi-ethnic 4 -0.15 -0.66; 0.35  
Individual Vs Group delivered     0.00%
   Individual 7 -0.45 -0.75; -0.14  
   Group 7 0.13 -0.29; 0.56  
   Both 4 0.32 -0.14; 0.79  
Patients accompanied by family     0.00%
   No 5 -0.23** -0.44; -0.04  
   Yes 15 -0.38 -0.84; 0.07  
Face to face Vs. telecommunication     0.00%
   Exclusively face to face 12 -0.37** -0.62; -0.12  
   Exclusively telecommunication 3 -0.08 -0.53; 0.37  
   Combining face to face and telecommunication 5 0.33 -0.11; 0.77  
Teaching methods     0.00%
   Didactic     0.39%
    Yes 14 -0.30** -0.53; -0.07  
    No 6 -0.03 -0.42; 0.35  
   Goal setting negotiated     0.00%
    Yes 8 -0.29** -0.57; -0.01  
    No 12 -0.03 -0.41; 0.34  
   Goal setting dictated     0.00%
    Yes 7 -0.26 -0.55; 0.02  
    No 13 -0.09 -0.48; 0.29  
   Situational problem solving     0.00%
    Yes 10 -0.28** -0.50; -0.06  
    No 10 -0.08 -0.47; 0.30  
   Cognitive reframing     0.00%
    Yes 4 -0.47** -0.91; -0.03  
    No 16 0.20 -0.29; 0.68  
   Number of teaching methods used     0.00%
    1 4 -0.58** -1.04; -0.12  
    2 10 0.37 -0.16; 0.92  
    3 or more 4 0.27 -0.27; 0.80  
Content     
   Diet     0.00%
    Yes 18 -0.35* -0.54; -0.15  
    No 1 -0.74 -2.00; 0.50  
   Exercise     0.00%
    Yes 15 -0.33* -0.54; -0.12  
    No 4 -0.20 -0.68; 0.28  
   Blood glucose self-monitoring     0.00%
    Yes 13 -0.26* -0.48; -0.03  
    No 6 -0.39 -0.81; 0.04  
   Basic diabetes knowledge     0.00%
    Yes 8 -0.28* -0.53; -0.02  
    No 11 -0.21 -0.60; 0.17  
   Medication adherence     0.00%
    Yes 9 -0.25* -0.49; -0.05  
    No 10 -0.19 -0.58; 0.20  
   Psycho-social     0.00%
    Yes 11 -0.18* -0.40; 0.03  
    No 9 -0.38 -0.76; 0.01  
  Number of contents     5.17%
   1 or 2 4 -0.36 -0.84; 0.12  
   3 or 4 9 0.02 -0.55; 0.58  
   5 or more 7 0.84 -0.48; 0.65  
Educators     
   Nurse     2.59%
    Yes 5 -0.02 -0.43; 0.39  
    No 14 -0.29* -0.52; -0.06  
   Dietician     0.77%
    Yes 11 -0.10 -0.27; 0.47  
    No 8 -0.35* -0.62; -0.08  
   Psychologist     2.47%
    Yes 1 0.05 -0.65; 0.76  
    No 18 -0.30* -0.50; -0.11  
   Physician     0.00%
    Yes 2 0.21 -0.29; 0.72  
    No 17 -0.33* -0.54; -0.13  
   Research team     2.13%
    Yes 2 -0.10 -0.77; 0.58  
    No 17 -0.29* -0.49; -0.09  
Number of types of educators     0.00%
   One 11 -0.30* -0.55; -0.04  
   Two 6 -0.41 -0.90; 0.07  
   Three or more 2 0.17 -0.34; 0.70  
Peer provider     0.00%
   Yes 7 -0.54 -0.93; -0.15*  
   No 13 0.29 -0.15; 0.74  
Duration of the intervention (months) 8.4 (1.4)† -0.02 -0.05; 0.02  
Number of sessions 12.1 (2.1)† -0.01 -0.02; 0.01 0.00%
Average duration of each session (hours) 1.5 (0.2)† -0.01 -0.25; 0.23 0.00%
Total hours of intervention 21.9 (7.0)† -0.01 -0.01; 0.01 0.00%
Intensity (number of hours/month) 4.6 (1.3)† -0.01 -0.09; 0.07 1.60%
  1. SMD = standardized mean difference; I2 = Variation in standardized mean difference attributable to heterogeneity; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin.
  2. aN is not equal to 20 for all variables, as some characteristics were not reported for all the interventions.
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.001, † = mean (SE).