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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies and interventions

From: Characteristics and effectiveness of diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

  Number (N)* Percentage (%)
Characteristics of the studies (n = 37)   
Country where the intervention took place   
  United States 34 92
  United Kingdom 2 5
  Netherland 1 3
Design   
  Randomized controlled trial 27 73
  Quasi-experimental 10 27
Years of publication   
  Before 2001 6 16
  2001-2006 16 43
  2007-2012 15 41
Risk of bias   
  Low 8 22
  Moderate 16 43
  High 13 35
Number of participants 159 (117)† 7-529‡
Characteristics of the interventions (n = 39)   
Ethnicity   
  African American 13 33
  Latinos 16 41
  Asiatic 2 5
  Alaskan-Eskimos 1 2
  Multiethnic group 7 18
Place where intervention took place   
  General Practice 16 44
  Community Center 12 33
  Home 3 8
  Hospital 1 3
  Other 4 11
Setting   
  One-on-one 13 33
  Group 17 44
  Both 9 23
Family invited to take part in the intervention   
  Yes 12 31
  No 27 69
Delivery   
  Face-to-face 27 69
  Telecommunication 5 13
  Both 7 18
Number of teaching methods   
  1 7 18
  2 24 62
  3 or more 8 26
Teaching method*   
  Didactic 32 82
  Goal-setting, dictated 8 21
  Goal-setting, negotiated 10 26
  Situational problem solving 23 59
  Cognitive reframing 7 18
  Other 2 5
Number of educational contents   
  One 7 18
  Two 5 13
  Three 5 13
  Four of more 22 56
Educational Content   
  Diet 33 85
  Exercise 24 65
  Self-monitored blood glucose 23 59
  Basic diabetes knowledge 21 54
  Medication adherence 11 28
  Psycho-social 19 49
  Other 11 28
Number of educators   
  One 18 46
  Two 14 36
  Three or more 4 10
Educators   
  Nurse 15 39
  Dietitian 21 54
  Psychologist 2 5
  Physician 2 5
  Research team or staff 4 10
  Other 16 41
  Unclear/unspecified 2 5
Peer provider   
  Yes 12 31
  No 26 67
Culturally adapted   
  Yes 33 85
  No 4 10
  Unclear/unspecified 2 5
Length of the interventions (months) 8.2 (8.4)† 0.25-48‡
Length of the interventions (number of sessions) 13.1 (13.6)† 1-52‡
Length of the sessions (minutes) 90 (52.9)† 14-240‡
Length of the interventions (total hours of intervention) 23.3 (36.7)† 0.25-180‡
Intensity (total hours of intervention per month) 4.9 (6.9)† 0.2-36‡
  1. *N is not equal to 37 for all variables, as some characteristics were not reported for all the interventions. †mean (sd); ‡min-max.