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Table 2 Rate of retinopathy in association with anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters

From: Retinopathy among young adults with Diabetes Mellitus from a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka

  Rate of diabetic retinopathy (%, [95% CI])
All adults Males Females
Duration of diabetes    
  ≤ 5 years 9.4 (6.7 – 12.6)§ 5.7 (2.6 – 10.6)§ 11.5 (7.9 – 16.1)§
  > 5 years 34.7 (28.8 – 41.0)§ 37.0 (26.6 – 48.5)§ 33.5 (26.4 – 41.3)§
Central obesity*    
  Absent 19.7 (15.0 – 25.0) 16.8 (11.1 – 23.9) 23.8 (15.9 – 33.3)
  Present 18.2 (14.7 – 22.1) 15.8 (9.1 – 24.7) 18.9 (14.8 – 23.6)
Obesity (BMI > 27.5 kg/m2)    
  Absent 21.2 (17.8 – 24.9)§ 17.8 (12.8 – 23.8)§ 23.2 (18.8 – 28.2)§
  Present 8.9 (4.5 – 15.3)§ 6.3 (1.0 – 10.8)§ 9.8 (4.6 – 17.8)§
Systolic hypertension (> 130 mmHg)    
  Absent 16.3 (13.2 – 19.7)§ 14.9 (10.1 – 21.0) 17.0 (13.2 – 21.4)§
  Present 28.7 (21.1 – 37.3)§ 20.4 (10.6 – 33.6) 34.7 (24.0 – 46.5)§
Diastolic hypertension (> 80 mmHg)    
  Absent 17.4 (14.4 – 20.7)§ 15.5 (10.8 – 21.3) 18.4 (14.6 – 22.7)§
  Present 27.6 (21.5 – 36.2)§ 20.0 (8.4 – 36.9) 32.7 (24.3 – 43.1)§
Hypertension    
  Absent 16.6 (13.5 – 20.2)§ 15.5 (10.4 – 21.8) 17.2 (13.3 – 21.7)§
  Present 25.3 (21.7 – 30.8)§ 17.9 (9.6 – 29.2) 30.8 (24.6 – 37.3)§
HbA1c    
  ≤ 6.5% (≤ 47.5 mmol/mol) 7.1 (3.7 – 12.0)§ 1.7 (0.04 – 8.9)§ 10.0 (5.1 – 17.2)§
  > 6.5% (> 47.5 mmol/mol) 22.7 (19.0 – 26.7)§ 21.7 (15.8 – 28.6)§ 23.2 (18.6 – 28.3)§
Urine microalbumin    
  < 20 mg/l 14.7 (11.1 – 18.9)§ 8.8 (4.5 – 15.2)§ 18.0 (13.2 – 23.7)§
  20 – 200 mg/l 22.0 (15.6 – 29.5) 26.5 (16.5 – 38.6) 18.3 (10.6 – 28.4)
  > 200 mg/l 41.2 (25.4 – 60.1)§ 33.3 (17.5 – 50.1)§ 50.0 (25.7 – 74.3)§
  1. §Values under each variable in a single column with the same superscript are significantly different from each other (p < 0.01); systolic hypertension or diastolic hypertension or both; *waist circumference > 90 cm for males and > 80 cm for females.