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Table 2 Rate of retinopathy in association with anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters

From: Retinopathy among young adults with Diabetes Mellitus from a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka

 

Rate of diabetic retinopathy (%, [95% CI])

All adults

Males

Females

Duration of diabetes

   

  ≤ 5 years

9.4 (6.7 – 12.6)§

5.7 (2.6 – 10.6)§

11.5 (7.9 – 16.1)§

  > 5 years

34.7 (28.8 – 41.0)§

37.0 (26.6 – 48.5)§

33.5 (26.4 – 41.3)§

Central obesity*

   

  Absent

19.7 (15.0 – 25.0)

16.8 (11.1 – 23.9)

23.8 (15.9 – 33.3)

  Present

18.2 (14.7 – 22.1)

15.8 (9.1 – 24.7)

18.9 (14.8 – 23.6)

Obesity (BMI > 27.5 kg/m2)

   

  Absent

21.2 (17.8 – 24.9)§

17.8 (12.8 – 23.8)§

23.2 (18.8 – 28.2)§

  Present

8.9 (4.5 – 15.3)§

6.3 (1.0 – 10.8)§

9.8 (4.6 – 17.8)§

Systolic hypertension (> 130 mmHg)

   

  Absent

16.3 (13.2 – 19.7)§

14.9 (10.1 – 21.0)

17.0 (13.2 – 21.4)§

  Present

28.7 (21.1 – 37.3)§

20.4 (10.6 – 33.6)

34.7 (24.0 – 46.5)§

Diastolic hypertension (> 80 mmHg)

   

  Absent

17.4 (14.4 – 20.7)§

15.5 (10.8 – 21.3)

18.4 (14.6 – 22.7)§

  Present

27.6 (21.5 – 36.2)§

20.0 (8.4 – 36.9)

32.7 (24.3 – 43.1)§

Hypertension

   

  Absent

16.6 (13.5 – 20.2)§

15.5 (10.4 – 21.8)

17.2 (13.3 – 21.7)§

  Present

25.3 (21.7 – 30.8)§

17.9 (9.6 – 29.2)

30.8 (24.6 – 37.3)§

HbA1c

   

  ≤ 6.5% (≤ 47.5 mmol/mol)

7.1 (3.7 – 12.0)§

1.7 (0.04 – 8.9)§

10.0 (5.1 – 17.2)§

  > 6.5% (> 47.5 mmol/mol)

22.7 (19.0 – 26.7)§

21.7 (15.8 – 28.6)§

23.2 (18.6 – 28.3)§

Urine microalbumin

   

  < 20 mg/l

14.7 (11.1 – 18.9)§

8.8 (4.5 – 15.2)§

18.0 (13.2 – 23.7)§

  20 – 200 mg/l

22.0 (15.6 – 29.5)

26.5 (16.5 – 38.6)

18.3 (10.6 – 28.4)

  > 200 mg/l

41.2 (25.4 – 60.1)§

33.3 (17.5 – 50.1)§

50.0 (25.7 – 74.3)§

  1. §Values under each variable in a single column with the same superscript are significantly different from each other (p < 0.01); systolic hypertension or diastolic hypertension or both; *waist circumference > 90 cm for males and > 80 cm for females.