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Table 1 Association of age, clinical and biochemical parameters with diabetic retinopathy

From: Retinopathy among young adults with Diabetes Mellitus from a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka

  Diabetic retinopathy p* Diabetic retinopathy grade
Absent Present Mild NPDR Moderate NPDR Maculopathy
Mean (±SD) Mean (±SD)   Mean (±SD) Mean (±SD) Mean (±SD)
Age (years) 36.5 (±5.9) 39.8 (±4.6) <0.001 39.1 (±5.1) 40.4 (±4.0) 40.8 (±3.0)
Duration of diabetes (years) 4.4 (±3.3) 8.5 (±4.9) <0.001 7.9 (±4.7) 8.8 (±4.9)§ 11.2 (±5.0)♯,§
Height (cm) 157.6 (±10.0) 156.2 (±8.0) NS 155.9 (±8.0) 156.0 (±7.4) 158.4 (±10.4)
Weight (kg) 61.9 (±11.9) 57.1 (±9.6) <0.001 57.2 (±10.2) 55.8 (±9.0) 60.4 (±8.7)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 24.8 (±4.2) 23.3 (±3.2) <0.001 23.4 (±3.2) 22.8 (±3.4) 24.1 (±2.7)
Waist circumference (cm) 87.4 (±9.8) 85.0 (±8.4) <0.05 84.8 (±8.6) 84.3 (±8.3) 88.7 (±5.9)
Hip circumference (cm) 96.0 (±15.5) 91.8 (±6.3) <0.01 92.2 (±6.5) 90.6 (±6.1) 93.5 (±5.1)
Waist to hip ratio 0.91 (±0.06) 0.92 (±0.06) NS 0.92 (±0.05) 0.93 (±0.06) 0.95 (±0.04)
Waist to height ratio 0.56 (±0.07) 0.54 (±0.05) NS 0.54 (±0.05) 0.54 (±0.06) 0.56 (±0.04)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.1 (±12.7) 124.2 (±17.1) <0.001 121.3 (±16.3) 125.3 (±16.1) 138.1 (±19.4)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74.8 (±8.9) 77.4 (±10.2) <0.01 75.9 (±8.9) 77.9 (±11.7) 83.4 (±10.6)
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) 163.6 (±66.8) 184.2 (±76.5) <0.01 180.6 (±73.5) 187.4 (±82.0) 201.9 (±76.2)
HbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] 7.9% (±2.0) [62.8] 9.0% (±1.8) [74.9] <0.001 8.7 (±1.8) [71.6] 9.4 (±1.6) [79.2] 10.1 (±1.2) [86.9]
Urine Microalbumin (mg/l)¥ 7.9 (3.6 – 26.5) 14.3 (4.2 – 53.2) <0.05 9.8 (4.1 – 45.6) 23.3 (7.2 – 71.2) 11.5 (3.0 – 97.5)
  1. *- patients with and without diabetes retinopathy; NPDR – Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy; NS – Not Significant; ¥- Median and inter-quartile range; ♯,§values in a single row with the same superscript in the diabetes retinopathy grade are significantly different from each other (p < 0.01).