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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects at survey 3 by quintile of energy-adjusted zinc

From: Is dietary zinc protective for type 2 diabetes? Results from the Australian longitudinal study on women’s health

  Quintile of energy-adjusted zinc  
Characteristic Sub group/or mean(Std) Q1 Lowest (n = 1785) Q3 Middle (n = 1784) Q5 Highest (n = 1784) p-value
Smoking status Never smoker 948 (53%) 1033 (58%) 922 (52%) <0.001
  Former smoker 568 (32%) 531 (30%) 569 (32%)  
  smoker < 10 c/d 84 (4.7%) 75 (4.2%) 76 (4.3%)  
  smoker 10-19 c/d 77 (4.3%) 64 (3.6%) 81 (4.6%)  
  smoker > = 20 c/d 100 (5.6%) 76 (4.3%) 130 (7.3%)  
Exercise group Nil/sedentary 321 (19%) 271 (16%) 323 (19%) 0.003
  Low 621 (37%) 683 (40%) 622 (36%)  
  Moderate 318 (19%) 355 (21%) 338 (20%)  
  High 437 (26%) 408 (24%) 433 (25%)  
Hormone replacement therapy No 1250 (70%) 1193 (67%) 1160 (65%) 0.020
  Yes 535 (30%) 591 (33%) 624 (35%)  
Heart disease No 1743 (99%) 1741 (98%) 1735 (98%) 0.077
  Yes 26 (1.5%) 28 (1.6%) 30 (1.7%)  
Hypertension No 1498 (85%) 1495 (85%) 1449 (82%) 0.038
  Yes 271 (15%) 274 (15%) 316 (18%)  
Arthritis No 1409 (80%) 1358 (77%) 1375 (78%) 0.342
  Yes 360 (20%) 411 (23%) 390 (22%)  
Asthma No 1568 (89%) 1602 (91%) 1584 (90%) 0.038
  Yes 201 (11%) 167 (9.4%) 181 (10%)  
Depression No 1538 (87%) 1605 (91%) 1597 (90%) 0.001
  Yes 231 (13%) 164 (9.3%) 168 (9.5%)  
Age mean (SD) 52.6 (1.4) 52.6 (1.5) 52.4 (1.5) 0.004
Body mass index mean (SD) 26.0 (5.4) 26.5 (5.1) 27.2 (5.4) <0.001
Total energy intake mean (SD) 6676 (2415) 6604 (2275) 6687 (2790) 0.508
Alcohol intake mean (SD) 6.2 (11.0) 8.3 (12.1) 9.7 (14.9) <0.001
Number of supplements mean (SD) 1.1 (1.1) 1.1 (1.1) 1.0 (1.1) 0.163
Carbohydrates (% of energy) mean (SD) 48.2 (5.8) 45.6 (5.8) 41.0 (7.5) <0.001
Dietary fibre (% of energy) mean (SD) 2.4 (0.7) 2.5 (0.6) 2.5 (0.8) <0.001
Total protein (% of energy) mean (SD) 17.1 (2.1) 20.8 (1.7) 25.1 (2.8) <0.001
Total fat (% of energy) mean (SD) 35.5 (5.5) 34.3 (5.9) 34.5 (6.6) <0.001
Saturated fat (energy adjusted) mean (SD) 14.0 (3.8) 13.5 (3.4) 13.9 (3.3) <0.001
Polyunsaturated fat (% of energy) mean (SD) 6.3 (2.3) 5.5 (1.9) 4.7 (1.5) <0.001
Monounsaturated fat (% of energy) mean (SD) 12.1 (2.2) 12.1 (2.4) 12.6 (2.8) <0.001
Iron (energy adjusted) mean (SD) −0.605 (0.984) 0.022 (0.905) 0.543 (0.897) <0.001
Cholesterol (energy adjusted) mean (SD) −0.584 (1.170) −0.043 (0.827) 0.607 (0.855) <0.001
Retinol (energy adjusted) mean (SD) 0.451 (0.947) 0.030 (0.932) −0.525 (0.993) <0.001
Vitamin C (energy adjusted) mean (SD) −0.092 (1.198) 0.024 (0.957) 0.028 (0.895) 0.001
Vitamin E (energy adjusted) mean (SD) 0.346 (1.094) 0.035 (0.923) −0.407 (0.939) <0.001
Calcium (energy adjusted) mean (SD) −0.374 (0.901) 0.126 (0.940) 0.089 (1.166) <0.001
Magnesium (energy adjusted) mean (SD) −0.453 (1.001) 0.064 (0.901) 0.268 (1.069) <0.001
Sodium (energy adjusted) mean (SD) −0.432 (1.030) 0.026 (0.930) 0.345 (0.999) <0.001
Potassium (energy adjusted) mean (SD) −0.594 (1.072) 0.067 (0.891) 0.454 (0.915) <0.001