Open Access

Erratum to: Adrenal fatigue does not exist: a systematic review

BMC Endocrine DisordersBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted201616:63

DOI: 10.1186/s12902-016-0132-8

Received: 28 August 2016

Accepted: 9 September 2016

Published: 16 November 2016

The original article was published in BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:48

Erratum

Following publication of the original version of this article in BMC Endocrine Disorders [1] it was brought to our attention that the comment section for row 12 in Table 1 should be blank. Please find the corrected table below.
Table 1

Summary of selected studies

First author & reference

Year of publication

Number of patients

Population

Questionnaire

Tests

Results

Comments

McLennan [21]

2016

257

H/B

Maslach

HCC

Nl

 

Schmidt [69] (part 1)

2016

265

Breast Cancer

FAQ

DAC, CAR, SCR, NSC

↑NSC, ↑AUC, Nl CAR, Nl DAC, ↓SCR

Pts. mostly on chemotherapy (ChTx); schemes not specified. No controls, only correlation between fatigue levels and tests. ChTx related to worse fatigue. Initial tests performed during, w/ or w/o ChTx.

Schmidt [69] (part 2)

2016

265

Breast Cancer

FAQ

DAC, CAR, SCR, NSC

↑AUC, ↑CAR, ↑NSC, ↑ SCR, Nl DAC

Second test of the study, performed after 14 weeks of procedures.

Sjors [25]

2015

220

H/B

SMBQ

DAC, CAR

↓CAR, ↑DAC

Results normalized after adjustment of anti-depressive use; SCR results not provided

Oosterholt [28]

2015

91

H/B

Maslach

DAC, CAR, SCR, AUC, CAR 60min

Nl SCR, ↓CAR, Nl AUC, Nl CAR 60min, ↓DAC

Control of variations did not change results

De Vente [22]

2015

95

H/B

Acute Psychosocial Stressor diagnosis

MSC, MST

Nl MSC, Nl MST

MST: Nl (women), reduced (men); MSC: Nl (men), reduced (women). Mental arithmetic and public speech stressors also performed

Lennartsson [24]

2015

56

H/B

DCSRD; exclusion w/ SEQ

DHEA-S; ACTH; ACTH and DHEA-S post-TSST (TSST stress test performed)

↓DHEA-S, ↓post-TSST DHEA-S, Nl ACTH, Nl post-TSST ACTH

 

Tao [23]

2015

171

H/B

Maslach

MSC, ACTH

↑ACTH, ↑MSC

 

Jonsson [29]

2015

51

H/B

SMBQ

MSC, MST

Nl MSC, ↓MST

 

Lennartsson [27]

2015

56

H/B

DCSRD and SMBQ

MSC, MST, ACTH, ACTH post-TSST (TSST stress test performed)

Nl MSC, Nl MST, Nl ACTH, Nl post-TSST ACTH

Severe BO: lower ACTH, cortisol response to TSST vs controls, whereas low BO: higher ACTH, cortisol responses vs controls

Schmaling [26]

2015

62

Healthy

ADAS

AUC, SCR

↓AUC, ↓SCR

31 couples studied, one of which had chronic fatigue (but not CFS)

Sveinsdottir [68]

2015

1150

Chronic Lombalgia

CFQ

DAC, CAR, SCR, NSC

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, Nl NSC, Nl SCR

 

Powell [67]

2015

76

Multiple Sclerosis

CFQ

DAC, CAR, SCR

↓DAC, ↑CAR, Nl SCR

Sleep disorders excluded; adjusted for depressive symptoms; NSC not published. Multiple sclerosis had increased awakening cortisol and decreased CAR

Cruz [70]

2015

43

Breast cancer

BFI and CFQ

MSC, DHEA-S

Nl MSC, Nl DHEA-S

Pts undergoing ChTx included anthracyclines

Marchand [31]

2014

1043

H/B

Maslach

DAC, CAR, SCR, NSC

↑DAC, ↓CAR, ↑SCR, ↓NSC

Only BO; Groups of severe distress or depression not included

Aggarwal [30]

2014

227

Healthy

CFQ

MSC, NSC, 0.25mg DST, DHEA-S

Nl MSC, Nl NSC, Nl 0.25mg DST, ↓DHEA-S

Evaluation of chronic, widespread pain, chronic orofacial pain, chronic fatigue (but not CFS), irritable bowel syndrome

Tell D [71]

2014

130

Breast cancer

MFI

DAC, CAR, SCR, NSC

↓CAR, ↓SCR, ↑DAC, ↑NSC

Post-surgery breast cancer, regardless of ChTx. Not adjusted to sleeping patterns

Wolfram [32]

2013

53

H/B

Maslach

MSC, 1mcg CST, DST/CRH test (1.5mg DST + 100mcg CRH)

Nl MSC, ↓post-1mcg ACTH, Nl ACTH and cortisol DST-CRH

High over-commitment present blunted serum and salivary cortisol and ACTH responses to DST-CRH test

Klaassen [33]

2013

27

Healthy

MP (Beck & Luine, 2010) and Stress Tasks (Wang, 2006)

MSC, post-stress

Nl MSC, Nl post-stress

A complex test sequence was performed but not reproduced

Eek [34]

2012

581

Healthy

SOFI-20

DAC, CAR, NSC, SCR, MSC

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, Nl NSC, Nl SCR, Nl MSC

Women: reduced awakening, increased CAR, increased SCR; Men: increased awakening and reduced CAR – when fatigued

Sjors [35]

2012

247

H/B

DCSRD and SMBQ

DAC, 15min CAR

Nl DAC, Nl 15min CAR

 

Rahman [54]

2011

30

CFS

Previous Dx – No questionnaire

MSC, SCR, NSC

Nl MSC, Nl SCR, Nl NSC

 

Moya-Albiol [37]

2010

64

H/B

Maslach

DAC, CAR

Nl DAC, Nl CAR

 

Kumari [38]

2009

4,299

Healthy

SF-36

DAC, CAR, NSC, SCR

↓DAC, ↓CAR, ↑NSC, ↓SCR

Adjusted for WC*, BMI, sleep duration, CVD medication, depressive symptoms, smoking, alcohol intake provides Nl awakening but lower SCR

Osterberg [39]

2009

304

H/B

Maslach

DAC, CAR, NSC, SCR

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, ↓NSC, ↑SCR

0.5mg DST was not compared to controls

Wingenfeld [41]

2009

279

H/B

Maslach and Maastricht

AUC, SCR

Nl AUC, Nl SCR

DAC and CAR not done; conclusions different from results. For AUC, Low BO: Nl, moderate: increased, severe: decreased

Rydstedt [40]

2009

76

Healthy

NRWS

DAC, NSC

Nl DAC, Nl NSC

 

Papadopoulos [55]

2009

38

CFS

CFQ and SF-36

MSC, AUC, morning AUC, 0,5mg DST

↑MSC, ↑AUC, ↑MAUC, Nl 0.5mg DST

Data on absolute cortisol levels at each point not published. DST reduction evaluated by percent reduction.

Bay [72]

2009

75

Post traumatic brain injury

POMS

AUC

Nl AUC

Correlation between brain injury-related fatigue level and cortisol AUC. Basal and NSC results not reported; SCR not evaluated.

Sudhaus [73]

2009

43

Chronic Lombalgia

MFI

DAC, CAR, MAUC

↓CAR, Nl DAC, Nl MAUC (correlation between fatigue levels among low back pain subjects)

** Colocar como SAUDÁVEL – porque é só lombalgia (Low back pain had increased CAR than controls).

Lindeberg [36]

2008

78

Healthy

SF-36

DAC, CAR, NSC, SCR

Nl DAC, ↓CAR, Nl NSC, ↓SCR

 

Sertoz [42]

2008

72

H/B

Maslach

Basal and post 1.0mcg DST cortisol

Nl basal cortisol and 1.0mg DST

 

Bellingrath [43]

2008

101

H/B

Maslach and Maastricht

DAC, CAR, NSC, SCR, 0.25mg DST

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, Nl NSC, Nl SCR, ↓0.25mg DST

 

Nater [57]

2008

185

CFS

SF-36 and MFI

DAC, CAR, MAUC

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, ↓MAUC

 

Torres-Harding [56]

2008

108

CFS

FSE

AUC, SCR

Nl AUC, Nl SCR

Multiple psychological tests performed. Data on NSC, basal and CAR not published.

Sonnenschein [45]

2007

42

H/B

Maslach

CAR, 0.5mg DST, DHEA-S

Nl CAR, Nl 0.5mg DST, Nl DHEA-S

Adjusted for depression, sleep quality. Awakening levels and each level graphics not available

Harris [44]

2007

44

Healthy

SF-36

DAC, CAR, NSC, SCR

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, Nl NSC, Nl SCR

Other aspects also correlated: complains, job stress and demand, QOL and coping. Adjusted for coffee and tobacco.

Langelaan [46]

2006

55

H/B

Maslach

DAC, CAR, 0.5mg DST, DHEA-S

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, Nl 0.5mg DST, Nl DHEA-S

Engaged work also compared and had stronger suppression in DST

Mommersteeg [47]

2006

109

Healthy

NC-WHO

DAC, CAR, 0.5mg DST, SCR, AUC, NSC

Nl DAC, Nl CAR, Nl NSC, Nl SCR, Nl 0.5mg DST, Nl AUC

 

Barroso [74]

2006

40

HIV

HRFS

MSC, NSC

↓MSC, ↑NSC

 

Jerjes [58]

2006

80

CFS

CFQ

UFC, TCM

↓UFC, Nl TCM

 

Grossi [48]

2005

64

H/B

SMBQ

DAC, CAR

↓DAC, ↑CAR

Groups were high x moderate x low BO score; correlation was significant

Segal [59]

2005

40

CFS

No questionnaire

MSC, 1mcg CST

↓ MSC, ↓1mcg CST

DHEA-S collected only in CFS. No questionnaires used.

Jerjes [60]

2005

35

CFS

CFQ

MSC, SCR, NSC, AUC

↓MSC, ↓SCR, ↓AUC ↓, Nl NSC

 

Bower [75]

2005

29

Breast cancer

SF-36

DAC, AUC, SCR, NSC

↑AUC, ↓SCR, Nl DAC, ↑NSC

Post-ChTx (regardless of time) complete cancer remission and exclusion of other disorders

McLean [76]

2005

55

Fybro-mialgia

SF-36

DAC, 60min CAR, SCR, AUC, NSC

Nl DAC, Nl 60min CAR, Nl SCR, Nl AUC, Nl NSC (correlation between fatigue levels among FMG subjects)

FMG subjects presented Nl DAC and CAR, as controls.

Roberts [62]

2004

92

CFS

CFQ and SF-36

DAC, CAR, MAUC

Nl DAC, ↓CAR, ↓MAUC

 

Crofford [61]

2004

72

CFS/ FMG

POMS

ACTH, MSC, SCR, NSC, AUC

Nl ACTH, Nl SCR, Nl NSC, ↓AUC, Nl MSC

Tests performed in: CFS, FMG and CFS + FMG; FMG w/o fatigue had Nl AUC and increased BMC levels

Moch [50]

2003

16

H/B

Maslach

UFC, DHEA-S, ACTH, MSC

↓UFC, Nl DHEA-S, Nl ACTH, ↓MSC

Only women; longitudinal evaluation – Nl initial cortisol.

De Vente [49]

2003

45

H/B

Maslach

DAC, MSC, post-TSST

↑DAC, ↑MSC, Nl post-TSST

 

Gaab [63]

2002

42

CFS

MFI

DAC, CAR, SCR, 0.5mg DST

↓0.5mg DST, Nl AUC, Nl CAR, Nl DAC, Nl SCR, Nl NSC

CAR also performed at 15, 45 and 60min.

Dekkers [77]

2000

53

Rheumatoid Arthritis

MFI

DAC, CAR, SCR, AUC

Nl AUC, Nl SCR Nl, ↓DAC, ↑CAR

5/25 subjects with RA taking prednisone (5–10 mg/d); RS subjects had smaller SCR, increased AM cortisol and decreased CAR. 15 and 45 min CAR also performed.

Melamed [51]

1999

111

H/B

SMBQ and Maastricht

MSC and 4PM cortisol

↑MSC, Nl 4PM cortisol

 

Pruessner [52]

1999

66

Healthy

Maslach

DAC, CAR, 0.5mg DST

↓DAC, ↓CAR, ↓0.5mg DST

15min and 60min CAR also performed

Strickland [65]

1998

74

CFS

Not specified/detailed

MSC, NSC

↓NSC, Nl MSC

Adjusted for depression

Young [66]

1998

45

CFS

NC-WHO

UFC, SCR, MSC, AUC

Nl UFC, Nl SCR, Nl MSC, Nl AUC

 

Scott [64]

1998

28

CFS

Not specified (not detailed)

MSC, ACTH, 100mcg CRH cortisol stimulation

Nl MSC, Nl ACTH, CRH stim test: ↓cortisol, ↓ACTH

 

Raikkonen [53]

1996

22

Healthy

Not assessed

1mcg CST, DST (non specified), OGTT, MSC, ACTH, cortisol/ACTH ratio

↑Cortisol/ACTH ratio; ↑CST, Nl DST, Nl OGTT, Nl MSC, Nl ACTH

Full article not assessed – not in PUBMED or other database

Questionnaires: SMBQ Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire, BFI Brief Fatigue Inventory, CFQ Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Maslach Maslach Burnout Inventory, SF-36 Short Form Health Survey 36, NC-WHO Neurasthenia Criteria, DCSRD Diagnosis Criteria of Stress-related Exhaustion Disorder, SEQ Stress-Energy Questionnaire, ADAS Abbreviated Dyadic Adjustment Scale, MFI Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, FAQ Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire, MP Memory Performance, POMS Profile of Mood States, Stress Tasks; FSE Fatigue Severity Scale, SOFI Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory, Maastricht Maastricht Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire, NRWS Need for Recovery from Work Scale, HRFS HIV-Related Fatigue Scale

Other abbreviations: CFS Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, H/B Healthy/Burnout, 24h-UFC 24-h Urinary Free Cortisol, FMG Fibromyalgia, ↑: Increased or elevated, ↓: Decreased or reduced, →: Unchanged, Nl Normal

Notes

Declarations

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Adrenal and Hypertension Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP)

Reference

  1. Cadegiani FA, Katerl CE. Adrenal fatigue does not exist: a systematic review. BMC Endocrine Disorders. 2016;16:48.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2016

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